Abstract

We measured the bulk optical damage thresholds of pure and Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), and of pure, Nd-doped, Cr-doped, and Yb-doped crystalline YAG. We used 9.9ns, 1064nm, single-longitudinal mode, TEM00 pulses, to determine that the breakdown thresholds are deterministic, with multiple-pulse thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 2.2kJ/cm2.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Smith and B. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4812-4832 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. K. Maldutis, “Scaling in damage of optical materials by intensive laser radiation,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672018 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Wexler, “Laser glass composition and the possibility of eliminating electrostrictive effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 166-167 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).
  11. A. Owyoung, “Ellipse rotation studies in laser host materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1064-1096 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. W. Faris, L. E. Jusinski, and A. P. Hickman, “High-resolution stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in glasses and crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 587-599 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149-5153 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

2008

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Smith and B. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4812-4832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. K. Maldutis, “Scaling in damage of optical materials by intensive laser radiation,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. Owyoung, “Ellipse rotation studies in laser host materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1064-1096 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. M. Wexler, “Laser glass composition and the possibility of eliminating electrostrictive effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 166-167 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149-5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arii, T.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Aung, Y. L.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, J.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, B.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R. W.

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149-5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Do, B.

Eilers, H.

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

Faris, G. W.

Feng, Y.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonzales, L. P.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, S. M.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, A. P.

Hoffman, K. R.

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, S. M.

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J. C.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jusinski, L. E.

Kamimura, T.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maldutis, E. K.

E. K. Maldutis, “Scaling in damage of optical materials by intensive laser radiation,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, T.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, “Ellipse rotation studies in laser host materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1064-1096 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rush, D.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schepler, K. L.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, W.

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, A.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

Starke, K.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wexler, R. M.

R. M. Wexler, “Laser glass composition and the possibility of eliminating electrostrictive effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 166-167 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yanagitani, T.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoneda, H.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr,Ca: Y3Al5O12 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960(1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. M. Wexler, “Laser glass composition and the possibility of eliminating electrostrictive effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 166-167 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Owyoung, “Ellipse rotation studies in laser host materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1064-1096 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149-5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. Bisson, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, H. Yoneda, J. Lu, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and K. Ueda, “Laser damage threshold of ceramic YAG,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1025-L1027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. E. Zelmon, K. L. Schepler, S. Guha, D. Rush, S. M. Hegde, L. P. Gonzales, and J. Lee, “Optical properties of Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 255-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kamimura, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Arii, W. Shirai, T. Mikami, T. Okamoto, Y. L. Aung, and A. Ikesue, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in transparent YAG ceramics controlled with micro-structural refinement,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713215(2008).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Maldutis, “Scaling in damage of optical materials by intensive laser radiation,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672018 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Number of pulses required to damage various YAG samples versus the single-pulse fluence for 9.9 ns , 1064 nm pulses. These fluences are not corrected for self focusing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time of single-pulse breakdown in crystalline, undoped YAG relative to the center of the pulse ( time = 0 ) as a function of peak onaxis fluence. These fluences are not corrected for self focusing.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P SF = 0.148 λ 2 n n 2 ,
n 2 β ( ρ d n d ρ ) 2 ,
I = I o 1 P / P SF .
g B = k s k a n s n p p 2 2 c ρ v a Γ B ,
d n d t = β I k + α n I n τ r ,

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