Abstract

Concerns about the health effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and its role in forming deleterious atmospheric species have made it desirable to have low-cost, sensitive ambient measurements of NO2. We have developed a continuous-wave laser-diode laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for NO2 that operates at ambient pressure, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive pumping system. The current prototype system has achieved sensitivity several orders of magnitude beyond previous efforts at ambient pressure (limit of detection of 2ppb, 60s averaging time). Ambient measurements of NO2 were made in Portland, Oregon using both the standard NO2 chemiluminescence method and the LIF instrument and showed good agreement (r2=0.92).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. C. Clemitshaw, “A review of instrumentation and measurement techniques for ground-based and airborne field studies of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry,” Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1-108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. A. Cleary, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Fong and W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Taketani, M. Kawai, K. Takahashi, and Y. Matsumi, “Trace detection of atmospheric NO2 by laser-induced fluorescence using a GaN diode laser and a diode-pumped YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 46, 907-915 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. A. George and R. J. O. O'Brien, “Prototype FAGE determination of NO2,” J. Atmos. Chem. 12, 195-209 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. A. Mann, R. F. White, and R. J. S. Morrison, “Detection and imaging of nitrogen dioxide with the degenerate four-wave-mixing and laser-induced-fluorescence techniques,” Appl. Opt. 35 (3), p. 475-481 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. H. Barnes and J. F. Kircher, “Laser NO2 fluorescence measurements in flames,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1099-1102 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Hargrove and J. Zhang, “Measurements of NOx, acyl peroxynitrates, and NOy with automatic interference corrections using a NO2 analyzer and gas phase titration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (4) (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. M. Donnelly and F. Kaufman, “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. II. Dependence of the perturbed 2B2 state lifetimes on excitation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1456-1460(1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Lifetime measurements of NO2 in the predissociation region 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 519-524 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Self-quenching and zero-pressure lifetime studies of NO2 at 465-490, 423-462 and 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 525-5342001.
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. C. Green, J. Xu, and N. Adhikari, “Transport of atmospheric aerosol by gap winds in the Columbia River gorge,” J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47, 15-26 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hargrove and J. Zhang, “Measurements of NOx, acyl peroxynitrates, and NOy with automatic interference corrections using a NO2 analyzer and gas phase titration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (4) (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Green, J. Xu, and N. Adhikari, “Transport of atmospheric aerosol by gap winds in the Columbia River gorge,” J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47, 15-26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. C. Clemitshaw, “A review of instrumentation and measurement techniques for ground-based and airborne field studies of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry,” Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Cleary, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Lifetime measurements of NO2 in the predissociation region 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 519-524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Self-quenching and zero-pressure lifetime studies of NO2 at 465-490, 423-462 and 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 525-5342001.
[CrossRef]

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Fong and W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

L. A. George and R. J. O. O'Brien, “Prototype FAGE determination of NO2,” J. Atmos. Chem. 12, 195-209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

V. M. Donnelly and F. Kaufman, “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. II. Dependence of the perturbed 2B2 state lifetimes on excitation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1456-1460(1978).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Barnes and J. F. Kircher, “Laser NO2 fluorescence measurements in flames,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1099-1102 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adhikari, N.

M. C. Green, J. Xu, and N. Adhikari, “Transport of atmospheric aerosol by gap winds in the Columbia River gorge,” J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47, 15-26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, H.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. H.

Baumann, K.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bertman, S. B.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bornick, R. M.

J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brune, W. H.

C. Fong and W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bucsela, E.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Celarier, E. A.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. Y.

T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, P. A.

Clemitshaw, K. C.

K. C. Clemitshaw, “A review of instrumentation and measurement techniques for ground-based and airborne field studies of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry,” Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. C.

P. A. Cleary, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coquart, B.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, V. M.

V. M. Donnelly and F. Kaufman, “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. II. Dependence of the perturbed 2B2 state lifetimes on excitation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1456-1460(1978).
[CrossRef]

Dunlea, E.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunlea, E. J.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edgerton, E.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fong, C.

C. Fong and W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaffney, J. S.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

George, L. A.

L. A. George and R. J. O. O'Brien, “Prototype FAGE determination of NO2,” J. Atmos. Chem. 12, 195-209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. C.

M. C. Green, J. Xu, and N. Adhikari, “Transport of atmospheric aerosol by gap winds in the Columbia River gorge,” J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47, 15-26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hard, T. M.

T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hargrove, J.

J. Hargrove and J. Zhang, “Measurements of NOx, acyl peroxynitrates, and NOy with automatic interference corrections using a NO2 analyzer and gas phase titration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (4) (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartsell, B.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S. E.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirokawa, J.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jenouvrier, A.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kajii, Y.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, F.

V. M. Donnelly and F. Kaufman, “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. II. Dependence of the perturbed 2B2 state lifetimes on excitation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1456-1460(1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

Kircher, J. F.

Kumar, V.

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Lifetime measurements of NO2 in the predissociation region 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 519-524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Self-quenching and zero-pressure lifetime studies of NO2 at 465-490, 423-462 and 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 525-5342001.
[CrossRef]

Lamsal, L. N.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mann, B. A.

Marley, N. A.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. V.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsumi, Y.

Matsumoto, J.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meagher, J.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Medina, D.

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mehrabzadeh, A. A.

T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mérienne, M. F.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Molina, L. T.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. J. S.

Muyskens, K.

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muyskens, M.

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Newman, L.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. B.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nunnermacker, L. J.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, R. J.

T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, R. J. O.

L. A. George and R. J. O. O'Brien, “Prototype FAGE determination of NO2,” J. Atmos. Chem. 12, 195-209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Olszyna, K.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. R.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. P.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. M.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, M. O.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Cuadra, L.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumaran, V.

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Self-quenching and zero-pressure lifetime studies of NO2 at 465-490, 423-462 and 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 525-5342001.
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Lifetime measurements of NO2 in the predissociation region 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 519-524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Springston, S. R.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinbacher, M.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Subramanian, K. P.

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Lifetime measurements of NO2 in the predissociation region 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 519-524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Self-quenching and zero-pressure lifetime studies of NO2 at 465-490, 423-462 and 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 525-5342001.
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Taketani, F.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Donkelaar, A.

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volkamer, R. M.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, R. F.

White, R. V.

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. J.

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wooldridge, P. J.

P. A. Cleary, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric NO2 with a commercial diode laser and a supersonic expansion,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6950-6956 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

M. C. Green, J. Xu, and N. Adhikari, “Transport of atmospheric aerosol by gap winds in the Columbia River gorge,” J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47, 15-26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaide, S.

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Hargrove and J. Zhang, “Measurements of NOx, acyl peroxynitrates, and NOy with automatic interference corrections using a NO2 analyzer and gas phase titration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (4) (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, and R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528-539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Atmos. Environ. (2)

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, and Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803-2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gaffney, R. M. Bornick, Y. H. Chen, and N. A. Marley, “Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 1445-1454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. C. Clemitshaw, “A review of instrumentation and measurement techniques for ground-based and airborne field studies of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry,” Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

J. Hargrove, L. Wang, K. Muyskens, M. Muyskens, D. Medina, S. Zaide, and J. Zhang, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of ambient NO2 with quantification and elimination of interferences,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7868-7873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Hard, R. J. O'Brien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric free radical determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768-777 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. (1)

M. C. Green, J. Xu, and N. Adhikari, “Transport of atmospheric aerosol by gap winds in the Columbia River gorge,” J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47, 15-26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

L. A. George and R. J. O. O'Brien, “Prototype FAGE determination of NO2,” J. Atmos. Chem. 12, 195-209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. M. Donnelly and F. Kaufman, “Fluorescence lifetime studies of NO2. II. Dependence of the perturbed 2B2 state lifetimes on excitation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1456-1460(1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D (3)

E. J. Williams, K. Baumann, J. M. Roberts, S. B. Bertman, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Springston, L. J. Nunnermacker, L. Newman, K. Olszyna, J. Meagher, B. Hartsell, E. Edgerton, J. R. Pearson, and M. O. Rodgers, “Intercomparison of ground-based NOy measurement techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. D 103, 22261-22280 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Lamsal, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, M. Steinbacher, E. A. Celarier, E. Bucsela, E. J. Dunlea, and J. P. Pinto, “Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne ozone monitoring instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. D 113, D16308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, R. Colin, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, “High-resolution Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 visible and near-infrared absorption cross sections: Temperature and pressure effects,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, S. Fally, M. Carleer, M. F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, and R. Colin, “Absorption cross-sections of NO2: simulation of temperature and pressure effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 76, 373-391(2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Lifetime measurements of NO2 in the predissociation region 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 519-524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakumaran, K. P. Subramanian, and V. Kumar, “Self-quenching and zero-pressure lifetime studies of NO2 at 465-490, 423-462 and 399-416 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 525-5342001.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

J. Hargrove and J. Zhang, “Measurements of NOx, acyl peroxynitrates, and NOy with automatic interference corrections using a NO2 analyzer and gas phase titration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (4) (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Marley, J. S. Gaffney, R. V. White, L. Rodriguez-Cuadra, S. E. Herndon, E. Dunlea, R. M. Volkamer, L. T. Molina, and M. J. Molina, “Fast gas chromatography with luminol chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the atmosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4595-4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Fong and W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253-4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modeled lifetime [Eq. (2)] and fluorescence signal [Eqs. (3, 4, 5, 6)] dependence on cell pressure. The parameters used to model our system with NO 2 excitation at λ = 406.3 nm were the detection solid angle ( Ω = 0.038 ), the fraction of fluorescence in the PMT spectral window ( F = 0.7 ), the transmission of the optics (0.8), the path length ( l = 1 cm ), the absorption cross section ( σ = 6 × 10 19 cm 2 molecule 1 ), the radiative rate constant ( k r = 1 / τ 0 = 2.6 × 10 4 s 1 ), and the quenching constant ( Q = 6 × 10 11 cm 3 molecule 1 s 1 ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of ambient pressure LIF monitor. For calibration the dilution system with NO 2 standard and zero air inputs is used to deliver various concentrations of NO 2 . When monitoring ambient NO 2 the digital valve is switched to deliver the air sample through the Fe SO 4 filter for background measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration of the LIF NO 2 signal ( counts   s 1 ) against a standard chemiluminescence analyzer (CL NO 2 parts per billion).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ambient measurements of ozone, NO, CL NO 2 , and LIF NO 2 made 10 through 14 February 2009 at the Portland State University campus Science Building 2 near the I-405 expressway.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Various LIF Instrumentation for NO 2 , Excitation Wavelength λ, Radiative Lifetime for the Transition, Operational Cell Pressure, and Limit of Detection for a 1 min Averaging Interval

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ NO 2 ] min = ( SNR ) C S b g t ,
τ N O 2 = 1 k r + i k q i M i q ,
S N O 2 = C N O 2 × E N O 2 × Φ N O 2 .
C N O 2 = Ω × F × T ,
E N O 2 = c t φ ( v ) σ ( v , temp , pressure ) d v ,
Φ N O 2 = k r k r + i k q i M i q ,
Φ N O 2 = k r K Q M ,
E N O 2 × Φ N O 2 = k r K Q × X ¯ ¯ × l ϕ ( ν ) σ ( ν , temp , pressure ) d ν .
Φ N O 2 = 1 τ N O 2 0 × K Q M .

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