Abstract

Retrievals of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space-borne measurements of backscattered near-infrared sunlight are hampered by aerosol and cirrus cloud scattering effects. We propose a retrieval approach that allows for the retrieval of a few effective aerosol parameters simultaneously with the CO2 total column by parameterizing particle amount, height distribution, and microphysical properties. Two implementations of the proposed method covering different spectral bands are tested for an ensemble of simulated nadir observations for aerosol (and cirrus) loaded scenes over low- and mid-latitudinal land surfaces. The residual aerosol-induced CO2 errors are mostly below 1% up to aerosol optical thickness 0.5. The proposed methods also perform convincing for scenes where cirrus clouds of optical thickness 0.1 overlay the aerosol.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (7)

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Oshchepkov, A. Bril, and T. Yokota, “PPDF-based method to account for atmospheric light scattering in observations of carbon dioxide from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and A. Butz, “Efficient calculation of intensity and polarization spectra in vertically inhomogeneous scattering and absorbing atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D20309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. Malathy Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2 line parameters: 4300 7000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Baker, H. Bösch, S. C. Doney, and D. S. Schimel, “Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc. 8, 20051-20112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, H. Bösch, and S. Dance, “Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 2619-2633 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, and P. J. Rayner, “Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2 sources and sinks: theoretical study in a variational data assimilation framework,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. van Diedenhoven, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of cloud parameters from satellite-based reflectance measurements in the ultraviolet and the oxygen A-band,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth's atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450-459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, A. J. Hewitt, T. Machida, A. Desai, N. Vinnichenko, T. Nakazawa, M. Y. Arshinov, N. Fedoseev, and T. Watai, “Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI) WFM-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3597-3619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bril, S. Oshchepkov, T. Yokota, and G. Inoue, “Parameterization of aerosol and cirrus cloud effects on reflected sunlight spectra measured from space: application of the equivalence theorem,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2460-2470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Bréon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3003-3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Linearization of vector radiative transfer with respect to aerosol properties and its use in satellite remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D04203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean from multispectral single-viewing-angle measurements of intensity and polarization: retrieval approach, information content, and sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D20207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mao and S. R. Kawa, “Sensitivity studies for space-based measurement of atmospheric total column carbon dioxide by reflected sunlight,” Appl. Opt. 43, 914-927 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Bréon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, and P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1716-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget 2. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “A linearized vector radiative transfer model for atmospheric trace gas retrieval,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 75, 221-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Hess, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301-308(1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1984 (2)

A. J. Heymsfield and C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846-855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. A. de Rooij and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, “Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions,” Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth's atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450-459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Bréon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3003-3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Bréon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, and P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alkhaled, A.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, S. C. Tsay, T. Yokota, and M. -H. Ahn, eds. (2004), Vol. 5652, pp, 182-188.

Arshinov, M. Y.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, A. J. Hewitt, T. Machida, A. Desai, N. Vinnichenko, T. Nakazawa, M. Y. Arshinov, N. Fedoseev, and T. Watai, “Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI) WFM-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3597-3619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, R. M.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, D. F.

D. F. Baker, H. Bösch, S. C. Doney, and D. S. Schimel, “Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc. 8, 20051-20112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balkanski, Y.

P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barkley, M. P.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, A. J. Hewitt, T. Machida, A. Desai, N. Vinnichenko, T. Nakazawa, M. Y. Arshinov, N. Fedoseev, and T. Watai, “Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI) WFM-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3597-3619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. Malathy Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2 line parameters: 4300 7000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. Chris

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, H.

L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, H. Bösch, and S. Dance, “Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 2619-2633 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Baker, H. Bösch, S. C. Doney, and D. S. Schimel, “Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc. 8, 20051-20112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, O.

P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, and P. J. Rayner, “Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2 sources and sinks: theoretical study in a variational data assimilation framework,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Bréon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3003-3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Bréon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, and P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Dufour and F.-M. Bréon, “Spaceborne estimate of atmospheric CO2 column by use of the differential absorption method: error analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3595-3609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bril, A.

S. Oshchepkov, A. Bril, and T. Yokota, “PPDF-based method to account for atmospheric light scattering in observations of carbon dioxide from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bril, S. Oshchepkov, T. Yokota, and G. Inoue, “Parameterization of aerosol and cirrus cloud effects on reflected sunlight spectra measured from space: application of the equivalence theorem,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2460-2470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. Malathy Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2 line parameters: 4300 7000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buchwitz, M.

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Butz, A.

O. P. Hasekamp and A. Butz, “Efficient calculation of intensity and polarization spectra in vertically inhomogeneous scattering and absorbing atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D20309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chevallier, F.

F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, and P. J. Rayner, “Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2 sources and sinks: theoretical study in a variational data assimilation framework,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christi, M.

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chudasama, B.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ciais, P.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Houweling, F.-M. Bréon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, and P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Connor, B. J.

B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, D.

B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1716-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dance, S.

L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, H. Bösch, and S. Dance, “Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 2619-2633 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Beek, R.

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Rooij, W. A.

W. A. de Rooij and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, “Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions,” Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

DeCola, P. L.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denning, A. S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Desai, A.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, A. J. Hewitt, T. Machida, A. Desai, N. Vinnichenko, T. Nakazawa, M. Y. Arshinov, N. Fedoseev, and T. Watai, “Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI) WFM-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3597-3619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. Malathy

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. Malathy Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2 line parameters: 4300 7000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906-921 (2008).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.

B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, V. Malathy Devi, and D. C. Benner, “Spectroscopic database of CO2 line parameters: 4300 7000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 906-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minikin, A.

P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Monks, P. S.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, A. J. Hewitt, T. Machida, A. Desai, N. Vinnichenko, T. Nakazawa, M. Y. Arshinov, N. Fedoseev, and T. Watai, “Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI) WFM-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3597-3619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morino, I.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, S. C. Tsay, T. Yokota, and M. -H. Ahn, eds. (2004), Vol. 5652, pp, 182-188.

Nakazawa, T.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, A. J. Hewitt, T. Machida, A. Desai, N. Vinnichenko, T. Nakazawa, M. Y. Arshinov, N. Fedoseev, and T. Watai, “Assessing the near surface sensitivity of SCIAMACHY atmospheric CO2 retrieved using (FSI) WFM-DOAS,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3597-3619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Natraj, V.

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, M. E.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Notholt, J.

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D. M.

D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget 2. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oguma, H.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, S. C. Tsay, T. Yokota, and M. -H. Ahn, eds. (2004), Vol. 5652, pp, 182-188.

Olsen, S. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oshchepkov, S.

S. Oshchepkov, A. Bril, and T. Yokota, “PPDF-based method to account for atmospheric light scattering in observations of carbon dioxide from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23210 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bril, S. Oshchepkov, T. Yokota, and G. Inoue, “Parameterization of aerosol and cirrus cloud effects on reflected sunlight spectra measured from space: application of the equivalence theorem,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2460-2470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, P. I.

L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, H. Bösch, and S. Dance, “Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 2619-2633 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pawson, S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

A. J. Heymsfield and C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846-855 (1984).
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Pollock, R.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Randerson, J. T.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, P. J.

F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, and P. J. Rayner, “Contribution of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory to the estimation of CO2 sources and sinks: theoretical study in a variational data assimilation framework,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget 2. CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, M.

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rödenbeck, C.

S. Houweling, F.-M. Bréon, I. Aben, C. Rödenbeck, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, and P. Ciais, “Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite data: a synthetic inter-comparison of measurement techniques and their performance as a function of space and time,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 523-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Roelofs, G.-J.

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Bréon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3003-3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, W. B.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sander, S. P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schimel, D. S.

D. F. Baker, H. Bösch, S. C. Doney, and D. S. Schimel, “Carbon source/sink information provided by column CO2 measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc. 8, 20051-20112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneising, O.

O. Schneising, M. Buchwitz, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, M. Reuter, J. Notholt, R. Macatangay, and T. Warneke, “Three years of greenhouse gas column-averaged dry air mole fractions retrieved from satellite Part 1: carbon dioxide,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3827-3853 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schrijver, H.

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Bréon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3003-3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schroll, S.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Bréon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3003-3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608(2002).
[CrossRef]

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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608(2002).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608(2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
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B. J. Connor, H. Bösch, G. Toon, B. Sen, C. Miller, and D. Crisp, “Orbiting Carbon Observatory: inverse method and prospective error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1716-1720 (2002).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
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P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
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H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
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P. Stier, J. Feichter, S. Kinne, S. Kloster, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, L. Ganzeveld, I. Tegen, M. Werner, Y. Balkanski, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, A. Minikin, and A. Petzold, “The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156(2005).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
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Yung, Y.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1716-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Bösch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O'Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bösch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Bréon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Exemplary spectra of the O 2 A band (left panel), the weakly absorbing CO 2 band (middle panel), and the strongly absorbing CO 2 band (right panel). Spectra are modeled for a grass surface observed at nadir and solar zenith angle 30 ° .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aerosol size distribution n aer ( r ) as a function of particle radius r. The retrieval methods rely on a power law (solid) size distribution. Multimodal lognormal size distributions such as shown for a fine (dashed) and a coarse (black dotted) particle aerosol are used for testing the retrieval approaches.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gaussian height distributions h ( z k ) for different center heights z aer as adopted for the retrieval methods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram of the aerosol optical thickness τ aer , s ( 0.77 μm ) for the trial ensemble.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the Ångstrom coefficient β for the trial ensemble.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left panel: aerosol optical thickness τ aer , s , k in layer k as a function of layer height z k considered by the trial ensemble. Exemplary individual profiles are shown in blue and red online. Right panel: median (full circles) and standard deviation (open squares) of aerosol optical thickness τ aer , s , k in layer k among the trial ensemble.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Surface albedo considered by the trial ensemble. The color scale shows albedo for the O 2 A band at 0.77 μm ranging from low (red online) to high (blue online). The scatter plot relates albedo at the two CO 2 bands.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Residual aerosol-induced X CO 2 error as a function of aerosol optical thickness at 0.77 μm for (a) and (b) “nonscattering” retrieval; (c) and (d) “3-band” retrieval; and (e) and (f) “ 2 micron ” retrieval. Results are shown at SZA = 30 ° for (a), (c), and (e) and SZA = 60 ° for (b), (d), and (f). Filled and open boxes correspond to scenes with aerosol optical thickness less and greater than 0.3, respectively. Dotted gray lines indicate 1% error limits.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Residual aerosol-induced X CO 2 error as a function of surface albedo at 1.61 or 2.06 μm for (a) and (b) “nonscattering” retrieval, (c) and (d) “3-band” retrieval, and (e) and (f) “ 2 micron ” retrieval. Results are shown at SZA = 30 ° for (a), (c), and (e) and SZA = 60 ° for (b), (d), and (f). Filled and open boxes correspond to scenes with aerosol optical thickness less and greater than 0.3, respectively. Dotted gray lines indicate 1% error limits.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Residual aerosol-induced X CO 2 error as a function of Ångstrom coefficient β for (a) and (b) “nonscattering” retrieval, (c) and (d) “3-band” retrieval, and (e) and (f) “ 2 micron ” retrieval. Results are shown at SZA = 30 ° for (a), (c), and (e) and SZA = 60 ° for (b), (d), and (f). Filled and open boxes correspond to scenes with aerosol optical thickness less and greater than 0.3, respectively. Dotted gray lines indicate 1% error limits.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Histograms of the residual aerosol-induced X CO 2 error for (a) and (b) “nonscattering” retrieval, (c) and (d) “3-band” retrieval, and (e) and (f) “ 2 micron ” retrieval. Results are shown at SZA = 30 ° for (a), (c), and (e) and SZA = 60 ° for (b), (d), and (f). Median and standard deviation (Stddev) are given in each panel.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Residual aerosol and cirrus induced X CO 2 error as a function of albedo at 1.61 μm for the (a) and (b) “nonscattering” retrieval and as a function of particulate optical thickness ( τ aer , s + τ cir , s ) at 0.77 μm for (c) and (d) “3-band” retrieval and (e) and (f) “ 2 micron ” retrieval. Results are shown at SZA = 30 ° for (a), (c), and (e) and SZA = 60 ° for (b), (d), and (f). Filled and open boxes correspond to scenes with particulate optical thickness less and greater than 0.3, respectively. Dotted gray lines indicate 1% error limits. Note the extended ordinate scale in (a) and (b).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y = f ( x , b ) + ϵ y ,
y = F ( x , b ) + ϵ y + ϵ F .
x ^ = arg min X ( | | S y 1 2 ( F ( x , b ) y ) | | 2 ) ,
n aer ( r ) = { A , r r 1 A ( r / r 1 ) α , r 1 < r r 2 0 , r > r 2 , ,
τ aer , k = τ aer h ( z k ) Δ z k ,
h ( z k ) = A exp [ 4 ln 2 ( z k z aer ) 2 w aer ( z aer ) 2 ] ,
w aer ( z aer ) = w 0 exp [ 4 ln 2 ( z aer w 0 ) 2 ( 2 w 0 ) 2 ] ,
n aer , s ( r ) = i = 1 7 f i 2 π σ i 1 r exp [ ( ln r ln r i ) 2 2 σ i 2 ] ,
τ aer , s ( λ 1 ) τ aer , s ( λ 2 ) = ( λ 1 λ 2 ) β ,
n cir , s ( c ) = { 0 , c c 1 A ( c / c 1 ) 3.85 , c 1 < c c 2 0 , c > c 2 , ,

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