Abstract

With the increasing requirements on spatial resolution and actuator pitch, multilayer bimorph deformable mirrors are coming into wider application in adaptive optics. This paper discusses the coupling of actuators of multilayer bimorph deformable mirrors. A decoupling algorithm based on controlling gradients directly is presented. And a closed-loop adaptive optics system, which consists of a double-layer bimorph deformable mirror and a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, is set up to validate this decoupling algorithm. Experimental results show that the intensity distribution at the image plane of the distorted wavefront is effectively improved when the modified closed-loop control is on. Besides, the experimental results fit well with the conclusion of numerical simulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

G. Vdovin, M. Loktev, and A. Simonov, “Low-cost deformable mirrors: technologies and goals,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940B (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Li and W. Jiang, “Comparing between zonal reconstruction algorithms and modal reconstruction algorithms in adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 121-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

A. V. Kudryashov and V. I. Shmalhausen, “Semipassive bimorph flexible mirrors for atmospheric adaptive optics applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3064-3073 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1990

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82-93(1990).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, A.

V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blain, C.

Bradley, C.

Cherezova, T.

A. Kudryashov, A. Sobolev, V. Samarkin, and T. Cherezova, “Novel development of tiny bimorph mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherezova, T. Yu.

Chesnokov, S. S.

Conan, R.

Dubikovsky, V.

V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, P.

Hilton, A.

Hou, J.

Hu, S.

Jiang, W.

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ning, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and C. Rao, “Response function calculation and sensitivity comparison analysis of various bimorph deformable mirrors,” Opt. Express 15, 12030-12038(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Hou, J. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Double-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system for phase compensation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2638-2642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li and W. Jiang, “Comparing between zonal reconstruction algorithms and modal reconstruction algorithms in adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 121-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82-93(1990).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaptsov, L. N.

Keskin, O.

Kudryashov, A.

A. Kudryashov, A. Sobolev, V. Samarkin, and T. Cherezova, “Novel development of tiny bimorph mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670O (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, A. V.

T. Yu. Cherezova, S. S. Chesnokov, L. N. Kaptsov, and A. V. Kudryashov, “Doughnut-like laser beam output formation by intracavity flexible controlled mirror,” Opt. Express 3, 180-189 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kudryashov and V. I. Shmalhausen, “Semipassive bimorph flexible mirrors for atmospheric adaptive optics applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3064-3073 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82-93(1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li and W. Jiang, “Comparing between zonal reconstruction algorithms and modal reconstruction algorithms in adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 121-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, N.

Lipson, S. G.

Loktev, M.

G. Vdovin, M. Loktev, and A. Simonov, “Low-cost deformable mirrors: technologies and goals,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940B (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ning, Y.

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ning, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and C. Rao, “Response function calculation and sensitivity comparison analysis of various bimorph deformable mirrors,” Opt. Express 15, 12030-12038(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, C.

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ning, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and C. Rao, “Response function calculation and sensitivity comparison analysis of various bimorph deformable mirrors,” Opt. Express 15, 12030-12038(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribak, E.

Samarkin, V.

A. Kudryashov, A. Sobolev, V. Samarkin, and T. Cherezova, “Novel development of tiny bimorph mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670O (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, C.

Shmalhausen, V. I.

A. V. Kudryashov and V. I. Shmalhausen, “Semipassive bimorph flexible mirrors for atmospheric adaptive optics applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3064-3073 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simonov, A.

G. Vdovin, M. Loktev, and A. Simonov, “Low-cost deformable mirrors: technologies and goals,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940B (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, A.

A. Kudryashov, A. Sobolev, V. Samarkin, and T. Cherezova, “Novel development of tiny bimorph mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

G. Vdovin, M. Loktev, and A. Simonov, “Low-cost deformable mirrors: technologies and goals,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940B (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Xu, B.

Xu, M. H.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. H.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, H.

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chin. Phys. B

Y. Ning, H. Zhou, H. Yu, C. Rao, and W. Jiang, “Thermal stability test and analysis of a 20-actuator bimorph deformable mirror,” Chin. Phys. B 18, 1089-1095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

A. V. Kudryashov and V. I. Shmalhausen, “Semipassive bimorph flexible mirrors for atmospheric adaptive optics applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3064-3073 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt.Express

Z. Jin and J. Zhang, M. H. Xu, X. Lu, Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, X. H. Yuan, and W. Yu, “Control of filamentation induced by femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air,” Opt.Express 13, 10424-10430 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. Kudryashov, A. Sobolev, V. Samarkin, and T. Cherezova, “Novel development of tiny bimorph mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670O (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82-93(1990).
[CrossRef]

X. Li and W. Jiang, “Comparing between zonal reconstruction algorithms and modal reconstruction algorithms in adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4825, 121-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Samarkin, A. Aleksandrov, V. Dubikovsky, and A. Kudryashov, “Water-cooled bimorph correctors,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60180Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Vdovin, M. Loktev, and A. Simonov, “Low-cost deformable mirrors: technologies and goals,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 58940B (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Packaged 20-actuator bimorph DM (left) and structure of the DM (right). (a) Lateral view of layers and fix mount, (b) distribution of actuators on each PZT layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mirror displacement dependence on applied voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bimorph DM and SH-WFS registration. The squares represent the subapertures of SH-WFS used to sample the pupil (broken-line circle), and the dotted squares are the spots focused on the CCD of the SH-WFS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Voltages applied on actuators in closed-loop correction for defocus aberration. Triangle line (curve C), 19 discrete actuators controlled by controlling gradients directly, with the defocus actuator grounded; cross line (curve D), 20 actuators controlled by decoupling algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experiment setup: 1. SH-WFS, 2. beam splitter, 3. aberration plate, 4. bimorph DM, 5. lens ( f = 1.12 m ), 6. Cascade Science camera ( 635 × 492   pixels , pixel size = 7.4 μm × 7.4 μm , 14 bit resolution), 7. high voltage amplifier ( magnification   80 × ), 8. PC control system (PCI-6216V D/A card, OK-M10A Image collecting cards inside).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavefront phase and intensity distribution in the focal plane before and after correction by the AO system. (left) Wavefront phase reconstructed by SH-WFS, (middle) far-field intensity distribution calculated from the left wavefront, (right) intensity distribution detected by the science camera. Exposure time = 10 ms . Open-loop, P V = 2.94 μm , RMS = 0.68 μm , SR = 0.01 ; closed-loop, P V = 0.54 μm , RMS = 0.07 μm , SR = 0.48 ; simulated correction, P V = 0.53 μm , RMS = 0.07 μm , SR = 0.56 .

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ G x ( i ) = j = 1 n V j ( S i R j ( x , y ) / x d x d y / S i ) = j = 1 n V j R x j ( i ) , G y ( i ) = j = 1 n V j ( S i R j ( x , y ) / y d x d y / S i ) = j = 1 n V j R y j ( i ) , i = 1 , 2 , 3 , , m ,
G R x y V = ε ,
V = R x y + G .
R x y = [ R d R f ] ,
V = R d + G .
V f = α V ¯ ,
V d = V V ¯ ,

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