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[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1037-1047 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. Davis, C. Emde, and R. Harwood, “A 3D polarized reversed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for millimeter and submillimeter passive remote sensing in cloudy atmospheres,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 43, 1096-1101 (2005).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, K. N. Liou, and Y. Gu, “An efficient diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer parameterization: application to cloudy atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 92, 189-200 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Reinersman and K. L. Carder, “Hybrid numerical method for solution of the radiative transfer equation in one, two, or three dimensions,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2734-2743 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Schwenger and E. Repasi, “Sea surface simulation for testing of multiband imaging sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5075, 72-84 (2003).

[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose Fortran program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/DISORTReport1.1.pdf (2000).

J. L. Haferman, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A multi-dimensional dicrete-ordinates method for polarized radiative transfer. Part I: validation for randomly oriented axisymmetric particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 379-398 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. Sánchez, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer model based on the discrete-ordinates method,” Atmos. Res. 33, 283-308(1994).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. E. Bates and J. N. Porter, “AO3D: a Monte Carlo code for modeling of environmental light propagation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1802-1814 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
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Y. Chen, K. N. Liou, and Y. Gu, “An efficient diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer parameterization: application to cloudy atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 92, 189-200 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. Marshak and A. B. Davis, eds., *3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres* (Springer, 2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Davis, C. Emde, and R. Harwood, “A 3D polarized reversed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for millimeter and submillimeter passive remote sensing in cloudy atmospheres,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 43, 1096-1101 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

[CrossRef]

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C. Davis, C. Emde, and R. Harwood, “A 3D polarized reversed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for millimeter and submillimeter passive remote sensing in cloudy atmospheres,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 43, 1096-1101 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, K. N. Liou, and Y. Gu, “An efficient diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer parameterization: application to cloudy atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 92, 189-200 (2005).

[CrossRef]

J. L. Haferman, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A multi-dimensional dicrete-ordinates method for polarized radiative transfer. Part I: validation for randomly oriented axisymmetric particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 379-398 (1997).

[CrossRef]

C. Davis, C. Emde, and R. Harwood, “A 3D polarized reversed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for millimeter and submillimeter passive remote sensing in cloudy atmospheres,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 43, 1096-1101 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70-83 (1941).

[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Light scattering by cloud layers,” J. Atmos. Sci. 24, 70-79 (1967).

[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Matrix methods for multiple-scattering problems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 289-298 (1966).

[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Light scattering by cloud layers,” J. Atmos. Sci. 24, 70-79 (1967).

[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Matrix methods for multiple-scattering problems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 289-298 (1966).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. II. The hybrid matrix operator-Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1063-1071(2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1037-1047 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, and F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314-329 (1973).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. L. Haferman, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A multi-dimensional dicrete-ordinates method for polarized radiative transfer. Part I: validation for randomly oriented axisymmetric particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 379-398 (1997).

[CrossRef]

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Y. Chen, K. N. Liou, and Y. Gu, “An efficient diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer parameterization: application to cloudy atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 92, 189-200 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. Marshak and A. B. Davis, eds., *3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres* (Springer, 2005).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, *Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering* (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, and F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314-329 (1973).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and F. E. Catchings, “Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 2: Scattering from maritime haze,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1071-1084 (1973).

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D. E. Bates and J. N. Porter, “AO3D: a Monte Carlo code for modeling of environmental light propagation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1802-1814 (2008).

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C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

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A. Sánchez, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer model based on the discrete-ordinates method,” Atmos. Res. 33, 283-308(1994).

[CrossRef]

F. Schwenger and E. Repasi, “Sea surface simulation for testing of multiband imaging sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5075, 72-84 (2003).

[CrossRef]

J. L. Haferman, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A multi-dimensional dicrete-ordinates method for polarized radiative transfer. Part I: validation for randomly oriented axisymmetric particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 379-398 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. Sánchez, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer model based on the discrete-ordinates method,” Atmos. Res. 33, 283-308(1994).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

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K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose Fortran program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/DISORTReport1.1.pdf (2000).

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993).

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C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).

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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, *Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering* (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

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K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).

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S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Matrix methods for multiple-scattering problems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 289-298 (1966).

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L. G. Stenholm, H. Störzer, and R. Wehrse, “An efficient method for the solution of 3D radiative transfer problems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 45, 47-56 (1991).

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K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose Fortran program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/DISORTReport1.1.pdf (2000).

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. II. The hybrid matrix operator-Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1063-1071(2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1037-1047 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).

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P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. II. The hybrid matrix operator-Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1063-1071(2008).

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[PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1037-1047 (2008).

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[CrossRef]

C. Davis, C. Emde, and R. Harwood, “A 3D polarized reversed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for millimeter and submillimeter passive remote sensing in cloudy atmospheres,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 43, 1096-1101 (2005).

[CrossRef]

K. F. Evans, “The spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 429-446 (1998).

[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Matrix methods for multiple-scattering problems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 289-298 (1966).

[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, “Light scattering by cloud layers,” J. Atmos. Sci. 24, 70-79 (1967).

[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. A. Buehler, C. Davis, P. Eriksson, T. R. Sreerekha, and C. Teichmann, “A polarized discrete ordinate scattering model for simulations of limb and nadir long-wave measurements in 1-D/3-D spherical atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24207 (2004).

[CrossRef]

D. E. Bates and J. N. Porter, “AO3D: a Monte Carlo code for modeling of environmental light propagation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1802-1814 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, K. N. Liou, and Y. Gu, “An efficient diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer parameterization: application to cloudy atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 92, 189-200 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. G. Stenholm, H. Störzer, and R. Wehrse, “An efficient method for the solution of 3D radiative transfer problems,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 45, 47-56 (1991).

[CrossRef]

J. L. Haferman, T. F. Smith, and W. F. Krajewski, “A multi-dimensional dicrete-ordinates method for polarized radiative transfer. Part I: validation for randomly oriented axisymmetric particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 379-398 (1997).

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