Abstract

A comparison between the absolute gonioreflectometric scales at the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been accomplished. Six different reflection standards were measured for their 045 spectral radiance factor between 250 and 1650nm in 10nm intervals. Also, the 0d reflectance factor between 400 and 1600nm in 100nm intervals was determined from goniometric reflectance measurements over polar angles with subsequent integration within the hemisphere above the sample. Goniometric comparisons covering such an extensive wavelength range and also several different sample materials are rarely implemented. For all but one sample, the difference between the results obtained at the TKK and the PTB was, with the exception of a couple of measurement points, within the expanded uncertainty (k=2) of the comparison at least up to a wavelength of 1400nm. All differences between the measurement results can be understood, except for one translucent sample in the visible wavelength range. The effect of sample translucency was found to be significant in the NIR wavelength region. Also, a general tendency of an increase of the TKK values relative to the PTB values in the UV region was observed. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Erb, “Requirements for reflection standards and the measurement of their reflection values,” Appl. Opt. 14, 493-499 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Shitomi, Y. Mishima, and I. Saito, “Development of a new integrating sphere with uniform reflectance for absolute diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 40, S185-S188 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6391-6399 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Hünerhoff, U. Grusemann, and A. Höpe, “New robot based gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflection,” Metrologia 43, S11-S16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. “Absolute Methods for Reflection Measurement,” 1st ed. (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage,1979), Vol. 44.
  7. W. Budde, W. Erb, and J. J. Hsia, “International intercomparison of absolute reflectance scales,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 24-27 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Zwinkels and W. Erb, “Comparison of absolute d/0 diffuse reflectance factor scales of the NRC and the PTB,” Metrologia 34, 357-363 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.
  10. V. E. Kartachevskaya, H. Korte, and A. R. Robertson, “International comparison of measurements of luminance factor and reflectance of white diffusing samples,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2694-2702 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  12. A. Höpe and D. Hünerhoff, “Robot-based gonioreflectometry at PTB,” in Proceedings of the 5th Oxford Conference on Spectrometry, (National Physical Laboratory, date?), pp. 65-69(2006).
  13. A. Höpe, D. Hünerhoff, and K.-O. Hauer, “Robot-based gonioreflectometer,” Industrial Robotics: Programming, Simulation and Applications, L. Kin-Huat, ed. (iIV Pro Literatur-Verlag, 2007), pp. 623-632.
  14. S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (ISO, 1992).
  16. J. C. Zwinkels and F. Gauthier, “Investigation of photoluminescent effect in opal glasses used as diffuse reflectance standards,” Proc. SPIE 4826, 70-78 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. “The certification of Opal Glass,” Tech. rep. 406 (Commission of the European Communities, 1990).
  18. S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Goniofluorometer for characterization of fluorescent materials,” Appl. Opt. 47, 835-842 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth and D. J. Barry, “Goniophotometric and polarization properties of white reflection standard materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133-149 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Hünerhoff, U. Grusemann, and A. Höpe, “New robot based gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflection,” Metrologia 43, S11-S16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

H. Shitomi, Y. Mishima, and I. Saito, “Development of a new integrating sphere with uniform reflectance for absolute diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 40, S185-S188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Zwinkels and F. Gauthier, “Investigation of photoluminescent effect in opal glasses used as diffuse reflectance standards,” Proc. SPIE 4826, 70-78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. C. Zwinkels and W. Erb, “Comparison of absolute d/0 diffuse reflectance factor scales of the NRC and the PTB,” Metrologia 34, 357-363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth and D. J. Barry, “Goniophotometric and polarization properties of white reflection standard materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133-149 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

W. Budde, W. Erb, and J. J. Hsia, “International intercomparison of absolute reflectance scales,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 24-27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975

Barry, D. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth and D. J. Barry, “Goniophotometric and polarization properties of white reflection standard materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133-149 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Budde, W.

W. Budde, W. Erb, and J. J. Hsia, “International intercomparison of absolute reflectance scales,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 24-27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chunnilall, C.

C. Chunnilall, E. A. Early, and A. Höpe, “NIST-NPL-PTB comparison of radiance factor,” poster at the 8th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 20-24. May 2002.

Chunnilall, C. J.

C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth and D. J. Barry, “Goniophotometric and polarization properties of white reflection standard materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133-149 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Crane, L.

C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deadman, A. J.

C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. A.

C. Chunnilall, E. A. Early, and A. Höpe, “NIST-NPL-PTB comparison of radiance factor,” poster at the 8th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 20-24. May 2002.

Erb, W.

J. C. Zwinkels and W. Erb, “Comparison of absolute d/0 diffuse reflectance factor scales of the NRC and the PTB,” Metrologia 34, 357-363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, W. Erb, and J. J. Hsia, “International intercomparison of absolute reflectance scales,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 24-27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Erb, “Requirements for reflection standards and the measurement of their reflection values,” Appl. Opt. 14, 493-499 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garforth, F. A.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth and D. J. Barry, “Goniophotometric and polarization properties of white reflection standard materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133-149 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, F.

J. C. Zwinkels and F. Gauthier, “Investigation of photoluminescent effect in opal glasses used as diffuse reflectance standards,” Proc. SPIE 4826, 70-78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grusemann, U.

D. Hünerhoff, U. Grusemann, and A. Höpe, “New robot based gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflection,” Metrologia 43, S11-S16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauer, K.-O.

A. Höpe, D. Hünerhoff, and K.-O. Hauer, “Robot-based gonioreflectometer,” Industrial Robotics: Programming, Simulation and Applications, L. Kin-Huat, ed. (iIV Pro Literatur-Verlag, 2007), pp. 623-632.

Holopainen, S.

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Goniofluorometer for characterization of fluorescent materials,” Appl. Opt. 47, 835-842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Höpe, A.

D. Hünerhoff, U. Grusemann, and A. Höpe, “New robot based gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflection,” Metrologia 43, S11-S16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Chunnilall, E. A. Early, and A. Höpe, “NIST-NPL-PTB comparison of radiance factor,” poster at the 8th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 20-24. May 2002.

A. Höpe and D. Hünerhoff, “Robot-based gonioreflectometry at PTB,” in Proceedings of the 5th Oxford Conference on Spectrometry, (National Physical Laboratory, date?), pp. 65-69(2006).

A. Höpe, D. Hünerhoff, and K.-O. Hauer, “Robot-based gonioreflectometer,” Industrial Robotics: Programming, Simulation and Applications, L. Kin-Huat, ed. (iIV Pro Literatur-Verlag, 2007), pp. 623-632.

Hsia, J. J.

W. Budde, W. Erb, and J. J. Hsia, “International intercomparison of absolute reflectance scales,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 24-27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hünerhoff, D.

D. Hünerhoff, U. Grusemann, and A. Höpe, “New robot based gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflection,” Metrologia 43, S11-S16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Höpe and D. Hünerhoff, “Robot-based gonioreflectometry at PTB,” in Proceedings of the 5th Oxford Conference on Spectrometry, (National Physical Laboratory, date?), pp. 65-69(2006).

A. Höpe, D. Hünerhoff, and K.-O. Hauer, “Robot-based gonioreflectometer,” Industrial Robotics: Programming, Simulation and Applications, L. Kin-Huat, ed. (iIV Pro Literatur-Verlag, 2007), pp. 623-632.

Ikonen, E.

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Goniofluorometer for characterization of fluorescent materials,” Appl. Opt. 47, 835-842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6391-6399 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Kartachevskaya, V. E.

Korte, H.

Lang, T. H.

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Liu, Y.

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Manoocheri, F.

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Goniofluorometer for characterization of fluorescent materials,” Appl. Opt. 47, 835-842 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6391-6399 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Mishima, Y.

H. Shitomi, Y. Mishima, and I. Saito, “Development of a new integrating sphere with uniform reflectance for absolute diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 40, S185-S188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nevas, S.

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nevas, F. Manoocheri, and E. Ikonen, “Gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6391-6399 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Robertson, A. R.

Saito, I.

H. Shitomi, Y. Mishima, and I. Saito, “Development of a new integrating sphere with uniform reflectance for absolute diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 40, S185-S188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shitomi, H.

H. Shitomi, Y. Mishima, and I. Saito, “Development of a new integrating sphere with uniform reflectance for absolute diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 40, S185-S188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Usadi, E.

C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

Zwinkels, J. C.

J. C. Zwinkels and F. Gauthier, “Investigation of photoluminescent effect in opal glasses used as diffuse reflectance standards,” Proc. SPIE 4826, 70-78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Zwinkels and W. Erb, “Comparison of absolute d/0 diffuse reflectance factor scales of the NRC and the PTB,” Metrologia 34, 357-363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Color Res. Appl.

W. Budde, W. Erb, and J. J. Hsia, “International intercomparison of absolute reflectance scales,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 24-27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Light. Res. Technol.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth and D. J. Barry, “Goniophotometric and polarization properties of white reflection standard materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133-149 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

J. C. Zwinkels and W. Erb, “Comparison of absolute d/0 diffuse reflectance factor scales of the NRC and the PTB,” Metrologia 34, 357-363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, S. Nevas, and E. Ikonen, “Effect of light scattering from source optics in goniometric diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 44, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Hünerhoff, U. Grusemann, and A. Höpe, “New robot based gonioreflectometer for measuring spectral diffuse reflection,” Metrologia 43, S11-S16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Shitomi, Y. Mishima, and I. Saito, “Development of a new integrating sphere with uniform reflectance for absolute diffuse reflectance measurements,” Metrologia 40, S185-S188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chunnilall, A. J. Deadman, L. Crane, and E. Usadi, “NPL scales for radiance factor and total diffuse reflectance,” Metrologia 40, S192-S195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. C. Zwinkels and F. Gauthier, “Investigation of photoluminescent effect in opal glasses used as diffuse reflectance standards,” Proc. SPIE 4826, 70-78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

“The certification of Opal Glass,” Tech. rep. 406 (Commission of the European Communities, 1990).

Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (ISO, 1992).

S. Nevas, S. Holopainen, F. Manoocheri, E. Ikonen, Y. Liu, T. H. Lang, and G. Xu, “Comparison measurements of spectral diffuse reflectance,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium, 2005), pp. 239-240.

“Absolute Methods for Reflection Measurement,” 1st ed. (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage,1979), Vol. 44.

C. Chunnilall, E. A. Early, and A. Höpe, “NIST-NPL-PTB comparison of radiance factor,” poster at the 8th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 20-24. May 2002.

A. Höpe and D. Hünerhoff, “Robot-based gonioreflectometry at PTB,” in Proceedings of the 5th Oxford Conference on Spectrometry, (National Physical Laboratory, date?), pp. 65-69(2006).

A. Höpe, D. Hünerhoff, and K.-O. Hauer, “Robot-based gonioreflectometer,” Industrial Robotics: Programming, Simulation and Applications, L. Kin-Huat, ed. (iIV Pro Literatur-Verlag, 2007), pp. 623-632.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TKK gonioreflectometer: quartz–tungsten halogen lamp (QTH), order-sorting filter (OSF), off-axis parabolic mirror (OPM), flat mirror (M), beam splitter (BS), monitor detector (MD), sample-to-aperture distance (L).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PTB gonioreflectometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

0 45 radiance factors measured at TKK.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurements on the effect of translucency. Radiance factors of the samples were measured in 45 0 geometry with and without an aperture in front of the sample surface. The difference of these measurements is presented.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample GO2: difference between the TKK and PTB reflectance factor measurements. The expanded uncertainties ( k = 2 ) are displayed by the solid lines for the 0 45 geometry and by error bars for the 0 d geometry.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample SP1: difference between the TKK and PTB reflectance factor measurements. The expanded uncertainties ( k = 2 ) are displayed by the solid lines for the 0 45 geometry and by error bars for the 0 d geometry.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sample SRS1: difference between the TKK and PTB reflectance factor measurements. The expanded uncertainties ( k = 2 ) are displayed by the solid lines for the 0 45 geometry and by error bars for the 0 d geometry.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sample RO1: difference between the TKK and PTB reflectance factor measurements. The expanded uncertainties ( k = 2 ) are displayed by the solid lines for the 0 45 geometry and by error bars for the 0 d geometry. The translucency correction has been applied to the data in the NIR region.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sample OG1: difference between the TKK and PTB reflectance factor measurements. The expanded uncertainties ( k = 2 ) are displayed by the solid lines for the 0 45 geometry and by error bars for the 0 d geometry. The translucency correction has been applied to the data in the NIR region.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sample CERAM#39: difference between the TKK and PTB reflectance factor measurements. The expanded uncertainties ( k = 2 ) are displayed by the solid lines for the 0 45 geometry and by error bars for the 0 d geometry.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Radiance factors as a function of reflection angle for sample SRS1 at 700 nm .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Radiance factor difference between measurements on positive and negative side for sample GO2 at 700 nm .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainties in the 0 45 Radiance Factor and the 0 d Diffuse Reflectance Factor for the TKK Gonioreflectometer ( k = 2 )

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainties in the 0 45 Radiance Factor and the 0 d Diffuse Reflectance Factor for the PTB Gonioreflectometer ( k = 2 )

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β ( θ r ) = I ( θ r ) I i 4 L 2 D 2 cos θ r η ,
R = β ( θ r ) sin ( 2 θ r ) d θ r sin ( 2 θ r ) d θ r .
β ( θ ) = π R 2 A Q cos θ i L r L i ,
U = ( u T K K 2 + u P T B 2 + u R 2 + u T 2 ) 1 / 2 × 2 ,

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