Abstract

The manufacturing of toric mirrors for the Very Large Telescope–Spectro-Polarimetric High-Contrast Exoplanet Research instrument (SPHERE) is based on Active Optics and stress polishing. This figuring technique allows minimizing mid and high spatial frequency errors on an aspherical surface by using spherical polishing with full size tools. In order to reach the tight precision required, the manufacturing error budget is described to optimize each parameter. Analytical calculations based on elasticity theory and finite element analysis lead to the mechanical design of the Zerodur blank to be warped during the stress polishing phase. Results on the larger (366mm diameter) toric mirror are evaluated by interferometry. We obtain, as expected, a toric surface within specification at low, middle, and high spatial frequencies ranges.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaitre, and M. Ferrari, “Active Optics: single actuator principle and angular thickness distribution for astigmatism compensation by elasticity,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1401-1409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” Messenger 127, 11-19(2007).

2006 (4)

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 629068 (2006).

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaitre, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and Active Optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Sporer, “TMT--stresses mirror polishing fixture study,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 6267R (2006).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

1999 (1)

S. D. Jacob, S. R. Arrasmith, I. A. Kozhinova, L. L. Gregg, A. B. Shorey, H. J. Romanofsky, D. Golini, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, and S. Hogan, “MRF: Computer-controlled optics manufacturing,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 78(12), 42-48(1999).

1998 (1)

M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 221-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. N. Wilson, “Active Optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172(1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. R. Lemaitre, “Various aspects of Active Optics,” Proc. SPIE 1114, 328-341 (1989).

1988 (1)

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active Optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1 mm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter NTT-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. P. Marioge, “Methods of generating aspheric surfaces. I & II,” J. Opt. 15, 119-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1980 (2)

1976 (1)

R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 663, 207-211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

1940 (1)

A. Couder, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).

1932 (1)

B. Schmidt, “A coma-free telescope,” Mitt Hamburg Strenv. 7, 15 (1932).

Arnold, L.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Arrasmith, S. R.

S. D. Jacob, S. R. Arrasmith, I. A. Kozhinova, L. L. Gregg, A. B. Shorey, H. J. Romanofsky, D. Golini, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, and S. Hogan, “MRF: Computer-controlled optics manufacturing,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 78(12), 42-48(1999).

Baudoz, P.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Beuzit, J. L.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Beuzit, J.-L.

Blais-Ouelette, S.

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 629068 (2006).

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 629068 (2006).

Bocaletti, A.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Buey, T.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

C. Augereau, J.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Charton, J.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Citterio, O.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active Optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1 mm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active Optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1 mm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Couder, A.

A. Couder, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).

Cuby, J. G.

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 629068 (2006).

de Saint Venant, B.

B. de Saint Venant, Mémoires , Vol. 14, p. 65.

Dohlen, K.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lemaitre, P. Montiel, P. Joulié, K. Dohlen, and P. Lanzoni, “Active Optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 4434, 7322-7332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

K. Dohlen, “SPHERE system analysis report,” ESO document issue 2, VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0161 (European Southern Observatory, 2008).

Dumas, P.

S. D. Jacob, S. R. Arrasmith, I. A. Kozhinova, L. L. Gregg, A. B. Shorey, H. J. Romanofsky, D. Golini, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, and S. Hogan, “MRF: Computer-controlled optics manufacturing,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 78(12), 42-48(1999).

Everhart, E.

Fappani, D.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaitre, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” in Proceedings of the Adaptive Optics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ATuD6.

Feautrier, P.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

Fedrigo, E.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

Feldt, M.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Ferrari, M.

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaitre, and M. Ferrari, “Active Optics: single actuator principle and angular thickness distribution for astigmatism compensation by elasticity,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1401-1409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaitre, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and Active Optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 629068 (2006).

M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 221-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaitre, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” in Proceedings of the Adaptive Optics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ATuD6.

M. Ferrari and E. Hugot, “TM3 manufacturing and tests report,” ESO document VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0233, issue 1 (European Southern Observatory, 2007).

Franza, F.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active Optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1 mm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter NTT-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Gabor, G.

Gigan, P.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

Gilmozzi, R.

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J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

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S. D. Jacob, S. R. Arrasmith, I. A. Kozhinova, L. L. Gregg, A. B. Shorey, H. J. Romanofsky, D. Golini, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, and S. Hogan, “MRF: Computer-controlled optics manufacturing,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 78(12), 42-48(1999).

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J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

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C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

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S. D. Jacob, S. R. Arrasmith, I. A. Kozhinova, L. L. Gregg, A. B. Shorey, H. J. Romanofsky, D. Golini, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, and S. Hogan, “MRF: Computer-controlled optics manufacturing,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 78(12), 42-48(1999).

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J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

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C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

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Puget, P.

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
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C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

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J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

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J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

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J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, “Active Optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172(1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active Optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1 mm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter NTT-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, “Active Optics control systems,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 1999), pp. 274-314.

Woinovsky-Krieger, S.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinovsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, 1959).

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

S. D. Jacob, S. R. Arrasmith, I. A. Kozhinova, L. L. Gregg, A. B. Shorey, H. J. Romanofsky, D. Golini, W. I. Kordonski, P. Dumas, and S. Hogan, “MRF: Computer-controlled optics manufacturing,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 78(12), 42-48(1999).

Appl. Opt. (8)

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 221-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

A. Couder, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).

Contemp. Phys. (1)

R. N. Wilson, “Active Optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172(1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter NTT-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active Optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1 mm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

J. P. Marioge, “Methods of generating aspheric surfaces. I & II,” J. Opt. 15, 119-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 663, 207-211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Meccanica (1)

G. R. Lemaitre, “Active Optics: vase or meniscus multimode mirrors and degenerated configurations,” Meccanica 40(3), 233-249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Messenger (1)

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” Messenger 127, 11-19(2007).

Mitt Hamburg Strenv. (1)

B. Schmidt, “A coma-free telescope,” Mitt Hamburg Strenv. 7, 15 (1932).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaitre, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and Active Optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, T. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J. F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701501U (2008).

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 629068 (2006).

S. F. Sporer, “TMT--stresses mirror polishing fixture study,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 6267R (2006).

G. R. Lemaitre, “Various aspects of Active Optics,” Proc. SPIE 1114, 328-341 (1989).

Other (15)

G. R. Lemaitre, Astronomical Optics and Elasticity, Active Optics Methods (Springer, 2009), p. 130.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaitre, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” in Proceedings of the Adaptive Optics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ATuD6.

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K. Lecleire and J. M. Lecleire, Réalisez Votre Télescope (Decitre, 1998).

A. G. Ingalls, Amateur Telescope Making (Scientific American, 1937).

P. Rabou, “SPHERE common path and infrastructure description,” ESO document, VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0281 (European Southern Observatory, 2008).

K. Dohlen, “SPHERE system analysis report,” ESO document issue 2, VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0161 (European Southern Observatory, 2008).

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 2005 (Cambridge University , 2005), pp. 317-323.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinovsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells (McGraw-Hill, 1959).

B. de Saint Venant, Mémoires , Vol. 14, p. 65.

R. N. Wilson, “Active Optics control systems,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 1999), pp. 274-314.

G. R. Lemaitre, “Active Optics and elastic relaxation methods,” in Current Trends in Optics, Vol. 12 of International Commission for Optics (Taylor & Francis, 1981), pp. 135-149.

Marc/Mentat, MSC software corporation.

Intelliwave, Engineering Synthesis Design, Inc.

M. Ferrari and E. Hugot, “TM3 manufacturing and tests report,” ESO document VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0233, issue 1 (European Southern Observatory, 2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: Vase form mirror profile. a = 183 mm , b = 198 mm , t 1 = 28 mm , and t 2 = 60 mm . Bottom: Rear view of the blank, showing the angular thickness distribution on the outer thick ring. Two pairs of opposite forces are applied at the end of two orthogonal diameters to produce the desired deflection on the clear aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Finite element analysis. Top: Face view of the deformed mirror. The deformation is adjusted at ± 9714.5 nm on the clear aperture. Bottom: Von Mises stress distribution during deformation. The maximal stress does not exceed 2 MPa , far below the elastic limit of Zerodur ( 8 10 MPa ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top: Rear view of the Zerodur blank showing the two thickness zones and the angular thickness modulation on the external ring. Bottom: Blank mounted with its warping harness on the polishing machine.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cleaning after the first grinding operation with the full size tool.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top: He–Ne interferogram of TM3 warped, showing the optical quality resulting from spherical polishing with full size tools. The black circle corresponds to the edge of the clear aperture. Bottom: TM3 in stress-free state. PtV, 19.4 μm ; low frequency residuals, 88.0 nm RMS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top: Finite element analysis of the specific mounting (see text for explanation). Calculations shows that the thin mirror will not bend significantly under its own weight and under a temperature variation of 20 K between 280 K and 300 K . Bottom: The main deformation mode is tilt, 4.5 arcsec due to gravity (static correction), and 0.5 arcsec due to temperature (specification 2.56 arcsec ). Other residuals are lower than 8 nm PtV, i.e., 2 nm RMS.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TM3 glued inside its Invar ring, fixed in its mount, on the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) test setup. Measurement results are in agreement with FEA, as described in Table 3.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of Very Large Telescope–Spectro-Polarimetric High-Contrast Exoplanet Research Instrument (VLT-SPHERE) Toric Mirrors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Zernike Decomposition of the RMS Surface Errors on TM3 Clear Aperture a

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Table 3 Zernike Decomposition of the RMS Surface Errors on TM3 Clear Aperture a

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Table 4 Final Error Budget for the TM3 Stress Polishing in Terms of Error Source (Upper) and Spatial Frequency Range (Lower)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ 2 = σ num 2 + σ def 2 + σ sup 2 + σ pol 2 + σ mnt 2 + σ mes 2 ,
σ 2 = σ LoF 2 + σ MidF 2 + σ HiF 2 .
z ( x , y ) = C x x 2 + C y y 2 1 + 1 C x 2 x 2 C y 2 y 2 ,
z ( r , θ ) = C r 2 1 + 1 C 2 r 2 + z 5 Z 5 ( r , θ ) + z 12 Z 12 ( r , θ ) ,
c b = 1 1 + ( 1 γ ) ( 1 ν ) [ 1 4 1 1 ν b 2 a 2 a 4 4 b 4 ] 2 + ( 1 γ ) ( 1 ν ) [ 1 2 3 ν 1 ν b 2 a 2 + a 4 2 b 4 ] .
t ( θ ) = t 0 [ ( 2 θ / π 0.5 ) cos ( 2 θ ) ] 1 3 , θ [ 0 , π 4 ] ,

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