Abstract

Details for constructing an astronomical frequency comb suitable as a wavelength reference for échelle spectrographs associated with optical telescopes are outlined. The source laser for the frequency comb is a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with a central wavelength of 1.56μm. The means of producing a repetition rate greater than 7GHz and a peak optical power of 8kW are discussed. Conversion of the oscillator light into the visible can occur through a two-step process of (i) nonlinear conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate and (ii) spectral broadening in photonic crystal fiber. While not necessarily octave spanning in spectral range to permit the use of an f -to- 2f interferometer for offset frequency control, the frequency comb can be granted accuracy by linking the mode spacing and a comb tooth to separate frequency references. The design avoids the use of a Fabry–Perot cavity to increase the mode spacing of the frequency comb; however, the level of supermode suppression and sideband asymmetry in the fiber oscillator and in the subsequent frequency conversion stages are aspects that need to be experimentally tested.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, and D. Segransan, “The HARPS search for southern extrasolar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 639-644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D'Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and U. Th, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335-1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kartner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. Diddams, “Passively mode-locked 10 GHz femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1905-1907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fu, B. K. Thomas, and L. Dong, “Efficient supercontinuum generation in silica suspended core fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 19629-19642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (13)

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756-1770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Generation of octave-spanning spectra inside reverse-photon-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2478-2480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, R. Gebs, M. S. Kirchner, and S. A. Diddams, “Spectrally resolved optical frequency comb from a self-referenced 5 GHz femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2553-2555 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3×1014 W/cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2870-2872 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, L. Nenadović, W. C. Swann, J. B. Schlager, and N. R. Newbury, “A passively mode-locked fiber laser at 1.54 μm with a fundamental repetition frequency reaching 2 GHz,” Opt. Express 15, 13155-13166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, B. M. C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb based wavelength reference for high resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66931G1(2007).

C. Lovis and F. Pepe, “A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 1115-1121(2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C. W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photon. 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, “Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. Yang, S. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 592-596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nortershauser, C. Novotny, and T. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 853-855 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, F. Pepe, F. Bouchy, G. L. Curto, M. Mayor, L. Pasquini, D. Queloz, G. Rupprecht, S. Udry, and S. Zucker, “The exoplanet hunter HARPS: unequalled accuracy and perspectives toward 1 cm s−1 precision,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690P(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, F. Sotier, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Highly efficient second, third and fourth harmonic generation from a two- branch femtosecond erbium fiber source,” Opt. Express 14, 1905-1912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, D. Ouzounov, and F. Wise, “Passive harmonic mode-locking of a soliton Yb fiber laser at repetition rates to 1.5 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1041-1043 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, A. George, J. Knight, J. Travers, A. Rulkov, S. Popov, and J. Taylor, “Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 14, 5715-5722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046-3048 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, K. Hsu, T. Kotake, H. Yaguchi, D. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, “5 GHz pulsed fiber Fabry-Perot laser mode-locked using carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 750-752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. Il'inskaya, Y. Zadiranov, A. Zhukov, V. Ustinov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, and N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Benkler, H. Telle, A. Zach, and F. Tauser, “Circumvention of noise contributions in fiber laser based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 13, 5662-5668 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Integrated self-referenced frequency-comb laser based on a combination of fiber and waveguide technology,” Opt. Express 13, 6490-6496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

2000 (2)

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. Hall, A. Madej, J. Bernard, K. Siemsen, L. Marmet, J.-M. Chartier, and A. Chartier, “Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and a frequency-division femtosecond comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797-3800(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, J.-C. Diels, J. Jasapara, and W. Rudolph, “Stabilization of the frequency, phase, and repetition rate of an ultrashort pulse train to a Fabry-Perot reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 175, 409-418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Stable multigigahertz pulse-train formation in a short-cavity passively harmonic mode-locked erbium/ytterbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 123-125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kutz, B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. De Cuyper and H. Hensberge, “Wavelength calibration at moderately high resolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experimen,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591-595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Abedin, K.

Achkar, J.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adel, P.

T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2007), pp. 572-573.

Adler, F.

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D'Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and U. Th, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335-1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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Arbore, M.

Avila, G.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
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Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
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C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kartner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benkler, E.

Benz, W.

M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, and D. Segransan, “The HARPS search for southern extrasolar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 639-644 (2009).
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B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Stable multigigahertz pulse-train formation in a short-cavity passively harmonic mode-locked erbium/ytterbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 123-125 (1998).
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J. Kutz, B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C. W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photon. 1, 283-287 (2007).
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J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. Hall, A. Madej, J. Bernard, K. Siemsen, L. Marmet, J.-M. Chartier, and A. Chartier, “Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and a frequency-division femtosecond comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797-3800(2000).
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[CrossRef]

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M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, and D. Segransan, “The HARPS search for southern extrasolar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 639-644 (2009).
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L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, “Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
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J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouchy, F.

M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, and D. Segransan, “The HARPS search for southern extrasolar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 639-644 (2009).
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J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
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C. Lovis, F. Pepe, F. Bouchy, G. L. Curto, M. Mayor, L. Pasquini, D. Queloz, G. Rupprecht, S. Udry, and S. Zucker, “The exoplanet hunter HARPS: unequalled accuracy and perspectives toward 1 cm s−1 precision,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690P(2006).
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Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
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C. Leburn, A. Lagatsky, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond Cr4+:YAG laser with 4 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett. 40, 805-807 (2004).
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Calonico, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
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E. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. Il'inskaya, Y. Zadiranov, A. Zhukov, V. Ustinov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, and N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081107 (2005).
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J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. Hall, A. Madej, J. Bernard, K. Siemsen, L. Marmet, J.-M. Chartier, and A. Chartier, “Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and a frequency-division femtosecond comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797-3800(2000).
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Chartier, J.-M.

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. Hall, A. Madej, J. Bernard, K. Siemsen, L. Marmet, J.-M. Chartier, and A. Chartier, “Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and a frequency-division femtosecond comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797-3800(2000).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C. W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photon. 1, 283-287 (2007).
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W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046-3048 (2006).
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Collings, B.

B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Stable multigigahertz pulse-train formation in a short-cavity passively harmonic mode-locked erbium/ytterbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 123-125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kutz, B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C. W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photon. 1, 283-287 (2007).
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J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
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C. Lovis, F. Pepe, F. Bouchy, G. L. Curto, M. Mayor, L. Pasquini, D. Queloz, G. Rupprecht, S. Udry, and S. Zucker, “The exoplanet hunter HARPS: unequalled accuracy and perspectives toward 1 cm s−1 precision,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690P(2006).
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A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
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J.-P. De Cuyper and H. Hensberge, “Wavelength calibration at moderately high resolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 409-416 (1998).
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J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
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M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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Delabre, B.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
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Dessauges, M.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
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A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. Diddams, “Passively mode-locked 10 GHz femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1905-1907 (2008).
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L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, “Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
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A. Bartels, R. Gebs, M. S. Kirchner, and S. A. Diddams, “Spectrally resolved optical frequency comb from a self-referenced 5 GHz femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2553-2555 (2007).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C. W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photon. 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, B. M. C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb based wavelength reference for high resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66931G1(2007).

Diels, J.-C.

R. Jones, J.-C. Diels, J. Jasapara, and W. Rudolph, “Stabilization of the frequency, phase, and repetition rate of an ultrashort pulse train to a Fabry-Perot reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 175, 409-418 (2000).
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D'Odorico, S.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D'Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and U. Th, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335-1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D'Odorico, V.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, Q. Q. C. W. Oates, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photon. 1, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with sub-hertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046-3048 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kartner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Froning, B. M. C.

S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, B. M. C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb based wavelength reference for high resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66931G1(2007).

Fu, L.

Galvanauskas, A.

Gebs, R.

George, A.

Geppert, C.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nortershauser, C. Novotny, and T. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glenday, A.

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kartner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopinath, J.

Grazian, A.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Grein, M. E.

Haehnelt, M.

J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella, M. Dessauges, M. Viel, L. Pasquini, M. Haehnelt, S. Cristiani, F. Pepe, G. Avila, P. Bonifacio, F. Bouchy, H. Dekker, B. Delabre, S. D'Odorico, V. D'Odorico, S. Levshakov, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, P. Molaro, L. Moscardini, M. T. Murphy, D. Queloz, P. Shaver, S. Udry, T. Wiklind, and S. Zucker, “Cosmic dynamics in the era of extremely large telescopes,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1192-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. Hall, A. Madej, J. Bernard, K. Siemsen, L. Marmet, J.-M. Chartier, and A. Chartier, “Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and a frequency-division femtosecond comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797-3800(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2007), pp. 572-573.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D'Odorico, M. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and U. Th, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335-1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D'Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haribaran, A.

Harter, D.

Hartl, I.

Haus, H.

Haus, H. A.

Heinecke, D.

Hensberge, H.

J.-P. De Cuyper and H. Hensberge, “Wavelength calibration at moderately high resolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hideur, A.

Hirai, A.

Hlavac, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, “Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, B. M. C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb based wavelength reference for high resolution spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66931G1(2007).

Holzwarth, R.

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E. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. Il'inskaya, Y. Zadiranov, A. Zhukov, V. Ustinov, D. Livshits, A. Kovsh, and N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081107 (2005).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. Yang, S. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 592-596 (2007).
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Nat. Photon. (1)

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Nature (1)

C.-H. Li, A. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. Glenday, F. Kartner, D. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (15)

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Science (1)

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Other (1)

T. Wilken, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, P. Adel, and M. Mei, “Low phase noise 250 MHz repetition rate fiber fs laser for frequency comb applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2007), pp. 572-573.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Peak power versus pulse repetition rate for a number of mode-locked lasers reported in the literature that approach the requirements for an astronomical frequency comb (or astrocomb). The minimum repetition rate for the astrocomb is based on a spectrograph with a resolving power, λ / Δ λ = 1.5 × 10 5 . The minimum peak power is roughly set by the peak intensity required for octave-spanning continuum generation in PCFs at 800 nm . The reference for each data point is listed in Table 1. See the text in regards to the hollow circle (Subsection 2A).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Broad layout of the optical scheme proposed for the astrocomb. Links to frequency standards have been omitted. The lower plot shows the predicted approximate wavelength coverage of the two frequency comb schemes described in the text (based on results previously reported). The ideal astrocomb wavelength coverage is somewhat application specific and is not necessarily as broad as depicted here. f r , repetition frequency or mode spacing; P PK , peak power of the optical pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Design of the 1.56 μm mode-locked fiber laser that generates the initial comb for the astronomical frequency reference. Two single-mode diode lasers are polarization multiplexed together for optical pumping in both directions of the Yb/Er fiber. GLP, Glan-laser prism; FR, Faraday rotator; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output of a H-MLFL produces a frequency comb with a frequency interval of N × the fundamental repetition rate of the laser, f rfund , between the dominant modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Supermode suppression versus pulse repetition rate for passive harmonically mode-locked lasers reported in the literature. The reference for each data point is listed in Table 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 High Repetition Rate, High Peak Power, Passively Mode Locked Lasers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Supermode Suppression

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P Pk = P mean 1.134 f r Δ τ ,
Δ ν = ( 4 ln ( 2 ) K [ 4.3 + ln ( 4.3 × 4 π 2 K τ c 2.1 ) ] ,
f n = n f r ± f ceo ,

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