Abstract

We have formulated composites of lead (II) tetrakis (4-cumylphenoxy) phthalocyanine (PbTCPc) doped into nematic liquid crystal (LC), 4-pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (5-CB), that has received a 90° twisted alignment and investigated the nonlinear transmission properties using both pulsed (Nd:YLF 524nm, 5ns) and cw (532nm) lasers. In the nanosecond regime, this compound is a reverse saturable absorber performing similarly to low-concentration solutions of PbTCPc. Under cw conditions, we observe optically self-activated polarization switching with low threshold input energy. Our results suggest the potential for an all-optical switch working from the nanosecond time scale to cw.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008

2007

I. C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. Liou, “All-optical switching of continuous wave, microsecond lasers with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Santhi, V. V. Namboodiri, P. Radhakrishnan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Spectral dependence of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of zinc phthalocyanine,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and M. A. Akundi, “Nonlinear absorption, scattering and optical limiting studies of CdS nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 13, 867-872 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y.-P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880-1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akundi, M. A.

Alvarrez, S.

Bartoli, F. J.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880-1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bedwhorth, P. V.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choong, I.

Dogariu, A.

Hagan, D. J.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, J. H. Park, and J. Liou, “Theory and experimental studies of all-optical transmission switching in a twist-alignment dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1931-1937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. Liou, “All-optical switching of continuous wave, microsecond lasers with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B.

Kimball, B. R.

Lawson, C. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y. S.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Liou, J.

I. C. Khoo, J. H. Park, and J. Liou, “Theory and experimental studies of all-optical transmission switching in a twist-alignment dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1931-1937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. Liou, “All-optical switching of continuous wave, microsecond lasers with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, S. Alvarrez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, S. Alvarrez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKerns, M. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P. A.

Namboodiri, V. V.

A. Santhi, V. V. Namboodiri, P. Radhakrishnan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Spectral dependence of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of zinc phthalocyanine,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

A. Santhi, V. V. Namboodiri, P. Radhakrishnan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Spectral dependence of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of zinc phthalocyanine,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. T.

Nordlund, T. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R.

Norwood, R. A.

Park, J. H.

Park, J.-H.

I. C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. Liou, “All-optical switching of continuous wave, microsecond lasers with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, S. Alvarrez, Jr., and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625-627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, K. J.

Peyghambarian, N.

Pong, R. G. S.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880-1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

A. Santhi, V. V. Namboodiri, P. Radhakrishnan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Spectral dependence of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of zinc phthalocyanine,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. N.

Riggs, J. E.

Y.-P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Santhi, A.

A. Santhi, V. V. Namboodiri, P. Radhakrishnan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Spectral dependence of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of zinc phthalocyanine,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, C.-X.

Shirk, J. S.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880-1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snow, A. W.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880-1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, D. M.

Sun, W.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

Thomas, J.

Tian, J.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Venkatram, N.

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wu, Q.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xia, T.

Xu, X. L.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, and C. M. Lawson, “Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880-1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J.-H. Park, and J. Liou, “All-optical switching of continuous wave, microsecond lasers with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

Y.-P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Santhi, V. V. Namboodiri, P. Radhakrishnan, and V. P. N. Nampoori, “Spectral dependence of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of zinc phthalocyanine,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

X. Yang, S. Qi, K. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Tian, and Q. Wu, “Optical limiting characteristics of mercury dithizonate in polymer film,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1358-1362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, J. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Xu, P. V. Bedwhorth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533-1536(1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of two samples and schematic view of the twist of LC between planar glass windows with orthogonally oriented PVA alignment layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized nonlinear transmission of PbTCPc-doped LC cells, as well as PbTCPc dilute solution (inset), with respective fitting results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the five-level model and equivalent quasi-three-level model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmitted power as a function of the input laser power for an unfocused laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitted power as a function of the input laser power for an unfocused laser for the EUT - 57 / 5 - CB composite; the inset shows a photograph of the sample.

Equations (1)

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F / z = ( σ ex N 0 ( σ g σ ex ) [ exp ( F / F s ) 1 ] N 0 F s / F ) F ;

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