Abstract

We study cross-slot waveguides for polarization diversity schemes that simultaneously offer strong confinement in the slot region for both TE and TM polarizations. A symmetric configuration is initially presented to demonstrate that the same strong confinement and propagation constants can be obtained for both polarizations and slot thicknesses down to 50nm. To make easier further realization of these waveguides, an asymmetric waveguide configuration with a vertical slot height of up to 120nm is proposed. The waveguide parameters are then optimized taking into account a 220nm silicon thickness. Our simulation results show that no beating issues between TE and TM modes is observed for beating lengths under 6.68μm, thus opening the way to efficient implementations of polarization diversity approaches.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. A. Barrios, “High-performance all-optical silicon microswitch,” Electron. Lett. 40, 862-863 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.
  8. K. Okamoto, “Beam propagation method,” in Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (2000), Chap. 7, pp. 273-281.
  9. M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305(2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, “High-performance all-optical silicon microswitch,” Electron. Lett. 40, 862-863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, “High-performance all-optical silicon microswitch,” Electron. Lett. 40, 862-863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Colonna, J. P.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Cuesta-Soto, F.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Daldosso, N.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Di Cioccio, L.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Garrido, B.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Gautier, P.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Haus, H. A.

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordana, E.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Kärtner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lebour, Y.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyan, P.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Mandorlo, F.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Martínez, A.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, “Beam propagation method,” in Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (2000), Chap. 7, pp. 273-281.

Orobtchouk, R.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Pellegrino, P.

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

Seassal, C.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, R. Orobtchouk, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, and F. Mandorlo, “Development of silicon photonics devices using microelectronic tools for the integration on top of a CMOS wafer,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 412518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. A. Barrios, “High-performance all-optical silicon microswitch,” Electron. Lett. 40, 862-863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photon. (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 4311081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-3.

K. Okamoto, “Beam propagation method,” in Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (2000), Chap. 7, pp. 273-281.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed silicon cross-slot waveguide and its main parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results for the effective index of the TE and TM fundamental and first higher-order modes as a function of W ( W 1 = W 2 = H 1 = H 2 = W ) for a symmetric cross-slot waveguide with a square cross section, w s x = 50 nm , w s y = 50 nm , and λ = 1550 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results for the effective index of the TE and TM fundamental modes as a function of W ( W 1 = W 2 = W ) for an asymmetric cross-slot waveguide with a rectangular cross section, H 1 = H 2 = 220 nm , w s x = 120 nm , w s y = 50 nm , and λ = 1550 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results for the effective index of (a) TE and (b) TM fundamental and first higher-order fundamental modes as a function of W ( W 1 = W 2 = W ) for an asymmetric cross-slot waveguide with a rectangular cross section, H 1 = H 2 = 220 nm , w s x = 120 nm , w s y = 50 nm , and λ = 1550 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of polarization diversity scheme in silicon photonics.

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