Abstract

It has been a challenge to design an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD) that has a wide field of view (FOV) and low f-number (f/#) while maintaining a compact, lightweight, and non intrusive form factor. In this paper, we present an OST-HMD design using a wedge-shaped freeform prism cemented with a freeform lens. The prism, consisting of three freeform surfaces (FFSs), serves as the near-eye viewing optics that magnifies the image displayed through a microdisplay, and the freeform lens is an auxiliary element attached to the prism in order to maintain a nondistorted see-through view of a real-world scene. Both the freeform prism and the lens utilize plastic materials to achieve light weight. The overall dimension of the optical system per eye is no larger than 25mm by 22mm by 12mm, and the weight is 8  g. Based on a 0.61 in. microdisplay, our system demonstrates a diagonal FOV of 53.5° and an f/# of 1.875, with an 8mm exit pupil diameter and an 18.25mm eye relief.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  23. A. Okuyama and S. Yamazaki, “Optical system, and image observing apparatus and image pickup apparatus using it,” U.S. patent 5,706,136 (6 January 1998).
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  33. M. Nakaoka, T. Togino, and J. Takahashi, “Distortion corrected image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,909,317 (1 June 1999).
  34. T. Togino and J. Takahashi, “Head-mounted display apparatus comprising a rotationally asymmetric surface,” U.S. patent 5,959,780 (28 September 1999).
  35. J. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,986,812 (16 November 1999).
  36. J. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,028,709 (02/22/2000).
  37. T. Togino, “Decentered prism optical system,” U.S. patent 6,034,823 (03/07/2000).
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  41. J. G. Droessler and T. A. Fritz, “High brightness see-through head-mounted display,” U.S. patent 6,147,807 (14 November 2000).
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, and J. Chang, “Design of a lightweight and wide field-of-view HMD system with freeform surface prism,” Infrared Laser Eng. 36, 309-311 (2007).

2006 (2)

B. Catanzaro, J. Porter, A. Barton, and W. Maffucci, “Compact binocular see through monocular display HMD,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240K (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, and M. Bayer, “Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD) for simulator applications,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240O (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Hua, L. D. Brown, and C. Gao, “Scape: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Chase, “Optical design with rotationally symmetric NURBS,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 10-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330-1334(2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. Vol. 39, 1760-1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, and E. Shimizu, “Head mounted display using holographic optical element,” Proc. SPIE 3293, 183-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, “Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head mounted displays,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. S. Karpman and B. A. Wells, “Virtual displays for entertainment applications: hitting cost/performance with LED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3000, 161-168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Sims, “New realities in aircraft design and manufacture,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 14, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, “Merging virtual objects with the real world: Seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient,” Comput. Graphics 26, 203-210 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849-854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, N. Nanba, and T. Tanaka, “The design of off-axial optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotational symmetry,” in 20th Optical Symposium, Extended Abstracts (1995), Vol. 21, pp. 53-56.

Altobelli, D.

W. Lorensen, H. Cline, C. Nafis, R. Kikinis, D. Altobelli, and L. Gleason, “Enhancing reality in the operating room,” in Visualization '93 Conference Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 1993), pp. 410-415.

Ando, T.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, and E. Shimizu, “Head mounted display using holographic optical element,” Proc. SPIE 3293, 183-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bajura, M.

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, “Merging virtual objects with the real world: Seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient,” Comput. Graphics 26, 203-210 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barton, A.

B. Catanzaro, J. Porter, A. Barton, and W. Maffucci, “Compact binocular see through monocular display HMD,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, and M. Bayer, “Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD) for simulator applications,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biocca, F.

F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, “Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head mounted displays,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).

Brown, L. D.

H. Hua, L. D. Brown, and C. Gao, “Scape: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cakmakci, O.

Catanzaro, B.

B. Catanzaro, J. Porter, A. Barton, and W. Maffucci, “Compact binocular see through monocular display HMD,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, and J. Chang, “Design of a lightweight and wide field-of-view HMD system with freeform surface prism,” Infrared Laser Eng. 36, 309-311 (2007).

Chase, H.

H. Chase, “Optical design with rotationally symmetric NURBS,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 10-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, D.

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, and J. Chang, “Design of a lightweight and wide field-of-view HMD system with freeform surface prism,” Infrared Laser Eng. 36, 309-311 (2007).

Cline, H.

W. Lorensen, H. Cline, C. Nafis, R. Kikinis, D. Altobelli, and L. Gleason, “Enhancing reality in the operating room,” in Visualization '93 Conference Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 1993), pp. 410-415.

Droessler, J. G.

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849-854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Droessler and T. A. Fritz, “High brightness see-through head-mounted display,” U.S. patent 6,147,807 (14 November 2000).

Fergason, J.

J. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).

Fisher, R.

R. Fisher, “Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same,” U.S. patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).

Foroosh, H.

Fritz, T. A.

J. G. Droessler and T. A. Fritz, “High brightness see-through head-mounted display,” U.S. patent 6,147,807 (14 November 2000).

Fuchs, H.

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, “Merging virtual objects with the real world: Seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient,” Comput. Graphics 26, 203-210 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

H. Hua, L. D. Brown, and C. Gao, “Scape: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

Girardot, A.

Gleason, L.

W. Lorensen, H. Cline, C. Nafis, R. Kikinis, D. Altobelli, and L. Gleason, “Enhancing reality in the operating room,” in Visualization '93 Conference Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 1993), pp. 410-415.

Ha, Y.

Hodges, L. F.

B. A. Watson and L. F. Hodges, “Using texture maps to correct for optical distortion in head-mounted displays,” in Proceedings of the Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium '95 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoshi, H.

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

H. Hua, L. D. Brown, and C. Gao, “Scape: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens,” Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland and H. Hua, “Head-mounted display systems,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. G. Driggers, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Inoguchi, K.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoguchi, H. Morishima, N. Nanaba, S. Takeshita, and Y. Yamazaki, “Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” in Japan Optics'95, Extended Abstracts (1995), pp. 19-20.

Karpman, M. S.

M. S. Karpman and B. A. Wells, “Virtual displays for entertainment applications: hitting cost/performance with LED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3000, 161-168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kikinis, R.

W. Lorensen, H. Cline, C. Nafis, R. Kikinis, D. Altobelli, and L. Gleason, “Enhancing reality in the operating room,” in Visualization '93 Conference Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 1993), pp. 410-415.

Lerner, S.

S. Lerner, “Optical design using novel aspheric surfaces,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Arizona, 2003).

Lorensen, W.

W. Lorensen, H. Cline, C. Nafis, R. Kikinis, D. Altobelli, and L. Gleason, “Enhancing reality in the operating room,” in Visualization '93 Conference Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 1993), pp. 410-415.

Maffucci, W.

B. Catanzaro, J. Porter, A. Barton, and W. Maffucci, “Compact binocular see through monocular display HMD,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Missig, M. D.

Moore, B.

Morishima, H.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, N. Nanba, and T. Tanaka, “The design of off-axial optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotational symmetry,” in 20th Optical Symposium, Extended Abstracts (1995), Vol. 21, pp. 53-56.

K. Inoguchi, H. Morishima, N. Nanaba, S. Takeshita, and Y. Yamazaki, “Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” in Japan Optics'95, Extended Abstracts (1995), pp. 19-20.

Morris, G. M.

Nafis, C.

W. Lorensen, H. Cline, C. Nafis, R. Kikinis, D. Altobelli, and L. Gleason, “Enhancing reality in the operating room,” in Visualization '93 Conference Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 1993), pp. 410-415.

Nakaoka, M.

M. Nakaoka, T. Togino, and J. Takahashi, “Distortion corrected image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,909,317 (1 June 1999).

T. Togino and M. Nakaoka, “Optical system and image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,181,475 (30 January 2001).

Nanaba, N.

K. Inoguchi, H. Morishima, N. Nanaba, S. Takeshita, and Y. Yamazaki, “Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” in Japan Optics'95, Extended Abstracts (1995), pp. 19-20.

Nanba, N.

H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, N. Nanba, and T. Tanaka, “The design of off-axial optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotational symmetry,” in 20th Optical Symposium, Extended Abstracts (1995), Vol. 21, pp. 53-56.

Ohbuchi, R.

M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, “Merging virtual objects with the real world: Seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient,” Comput. Graphics 26, 203-210 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, M.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, and E. Shimizu, “Head mounted display using holographic optical element,” Proc. SPIE 3293, 183-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, A.

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Okuyama and S. Yamazaki, “Optical system, and image observing apparatus and image pickup apparatus using it,” U.S. patent 5,706,136 (6 January 1998).

Porter, J.

B. Catanzaro, J. Porter, A. Barton, and W. Maffucci, “Compact binocular see through monocular display HMD,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riser, A.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, and M. Bayer, “Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD) for simulator applications,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, J. M.

J. M. Rodgers, “Nonstandard representations of aspheric surfaces in optical design,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Arizona, 1984).

Rolland, J. P.

O. Cakmakci, B. Moore, H. Foroosh, and J. P. Rolland, “Optimal local shape description for rotationally non-symmetric optical surface design and analysis,” Opt. Express 16, 1583-1589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens,” Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. Vol. 39, 1760-1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Biocca and J. P. Rolland, “Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: adapting to visual displacement in see-through, head mounted displays,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environments 7, 262-277 (1998).

J. P. Rolland and H. Hua, “Head-mounted display systems,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. G. Driggers, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Rotier, D. J.

J. G. Droessler and D. J. Rotier, “Tilted cat helmet-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 29, 849-854 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, E.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, and E. Shimizu, “Head mounted display using holographic optical element,” Proc. SPIE 3293, 183-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sims, D.

D. Sims, “New realities in aircraft design and manufacture,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 14, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sisodia, A.

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, and M. Bayer, “Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD) for simulator applications,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

J. Takahashi and K. Takahashi, “Prism optical element, image observation apparatus and image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,760,169 (6 July 2004).

M. Nakaoka, T. Togino, and J. Takahashi, “Distortion corrected image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,909,317 (1 June 1999).

T. Togino and J. Takahashi, “Head-mounted display apparatus comprising a rotationally asymmetric surface,” U.S. patent 5,959,780 (28 September 1999).

J. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,986,812 (16 November 1999).

J. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,028,709 (02/22/2000).

Takahashi, K.

K. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,745,295 (28 April 1998).

K. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,886,824 (23 March 1999).

J. Takahashi and K. Takahashi, “Prism optical element, image observation apparatus and image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,760,169 (6 July 2004).

K. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus comprising an internally reflecting ocular optical system,” U.S. patent 5,699,194 (16 December 1997).

K. Takahashi, “Head or face mounted image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,701,202 (23 December 1997).

Takeshita, S.

K. Inoguchi, H. Morishima, N. Nanaba, S. Takeshita, and Y. Yamazaki, “Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” in Japan Optics'95, Extended Abstracts (1995), pp. 19-20.

Tanaka, T.

H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, N. Nanba, and T. Tanaka, “The design of off-axial optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotational symmetry,” in 20th Optical Symposium, Extended Abstracts (1995), Vol. 21, pp. 53-56.

Taniguchi, N.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Togino, T.

M. Nakaoka, T. Togino, and J. Takahashi, “Distortion corrected image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 5,909,317 (1 June 1999).

T. Togino, “Decentered prism optical system,” U.S. patent 6,034,823 (03/07/2000).

T. Togino and M. Nakaoka, “Optical system and image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,181,475 (30 January 2001).

T. Togino and J. Takahashi, “Head-mounted display apparatus comprising a rotationally asymmetric surface,” U.S. patent 5,959,780 (28 September 1999).

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Wang, Y.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, K.

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, and E. Shimizu, “Head mounted display using holographic optical element,” Proc. SPIE 3293, 183-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, S.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshi, N. Taniguchi, H. Morishima, T. Akiyama, S. Yamazaki, and A. Okuyama, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” Proc. SPIE 2653, 234-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Okuyama and S. Yamazaki, “Optical system, and image observing apparatus and image pickup apparatus using it,” U.S. patent 5,706,136 (6 January 1998).

Yamazaki, Y.

K. Inoguchi, H. Morishima, N. Nanaba, S. Takeshita, and Y. Yamazaki, “Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” in Japan Optics'95, Extended Abstracts (1995), pp. 19-20.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330-1334(2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

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M. Bajura, H. Fuchs, and R. Ohbuchi, “Merging virtual objects with the real world: Seeing ultrasound imagery within the patient,” Comput. Graphics 26, 203-210 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. (2)

H. Hua, L. D. Brown, and C. Gao, “Scape: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Sims, “New realities in aircraft design and manufacture,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 14, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330-1334(2000).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Laser Eng. (1)

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, and J. Chang, “Design of a lightweight and wide field-of-view HMD system with freeform surface prism,” Infrared Laser Eng. 36, 309-311 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (2)

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[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. Vol. 39, 1760-1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (7)

T. Ando, K. Yamasaki, M. Okamoto, and E. Shimizu, “Head mounted display using holographic optical element,” Proc. SPIE 3293, 183-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Catanzaro, J. Porter, A. Barton, and W. Maffucci, “Compact binocular see through monocular display HMD,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240K (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sisodia, A. Riser, and M. Bayer, “Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD) for simulator applications,” Proc. SPIE 6224, 62240O (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Karpman and B. A. Wells, “Virtual displays for entertainment applications: hitting cost/performance with LED arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3000, 161-168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, and N. Taniguchi, “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with freeform-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453-462(1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Inoguchi, H. Morishima, N. Nanaba, S. Takeshita, and Y. Yamazaki, “Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” in Japan Optics'95, Extended Abstracts (1995), pp. 19-20.

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J. Takahashi, “Image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,028,709 (02/22/2000).

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T. Togino and M. Nakaoka, “Optical system and image display apparatus,” U.S. patent 6,181,475 (30 January 2001).

T. Togino, “De-centered optical system and optical apparatus equipped therewith,” U.S. patent 6,646,812 (11 November 2003).

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http://www.personaldisplay.com.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the OST-HMD system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Residual error function for different surface types.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time versus number of traced rays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical paths of the rays of different object fields and different pupil positions in an FFS prism OST-HMD: the incident angles of the rays on surfaces 1 and 1 depend on their field and pupil positions, and they are controlled to satisfy TIR conditions and avoid stray light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Starting point: (a) optical layout—a cross section view in the YZ plane, (b) MTF plots, (c) ray fan plots of center fields, (d) ray fan plots of marginal fields.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

System layout and sampled fields definition during different design stages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layout of the FFS prism lens system for virtual imaging optical system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Distortion plots of the virtual imaging optical system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Polychromatic MTF plot of center field of the virtual imaging system, (b) polychromatic MTF plot of marginal fields of the virtual imaging system, (c) ray fan plots of center fields, (d) ray fan plots of marginal fields.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Incident angle on the TIR surface. (a) Incident angle on surface 1 as the ray pupil position varies from the bottom to the top, (b) incident angle on surface 1 as the field of the ray changes from the lowermost to the uppermost in the meridian plane, (c) incident angle on surface 1 as the ray pupil position varies from the bottom to the top, (d) incident angle on surface 1 as the field of the ray changes from the lowermost to the uppermost in the tangential plane.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Design of the additional lens: (a) see-through by the FFS prism, (b) distortion caused by the FFS prism, (c) design layout of the see-through system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Distortion plot of the optical see-through system.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Polychromatic MTF plots of the optical see-through system with an ideal lens.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Layout of the see-through HMD by coupling the FFS prism lens system and an additional FFS lens.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Module of FFS prism. (b) Experiment setup.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Photo without prewarping the input image, and (b) photo after prewarping the input image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of Some Existing HMD Products that Use the FFS Prism Technique

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of the FFS Prism HMD

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ c = arcsin ( 1 / n ) ,
θ 1 b 1 > arcsin ( 1 / n ) ,
θ 1 b = { θ 1 b 1 < arcsin ( 1 / n ) , θ 1 0 θ 2 u 1 < arcsin ( 1 / n ) , θ 1 0 ,
{ y P a y P a < 0 y P a y P a > 0 0.5 < z P a z P a < 2 ,
{ y P b y P b > 0 1.5 < z P b z P b < 0.2 ,
{ 2 < y P c y P c 0 0 < z P c z P c < 1 ,
{ z p a 17 z p c 17 ,

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