Abstract

High-quality three-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) heterostructures were fabricated using the modified self-assembly method, and their structural and optical properties were analyzed. Results suggest that the optical quality of heterostructures formed by depositing bigger particles on small ones is superior to that of heterostructures formed by stacking smaller particles on big ones, due to the rough interface effects in the latter structure. The roughness of the interface in the latter structure can be largely improved by introducing a thin two-dimensional planar defect layer into the PCs, and significant progress in the quality of the heterostructures is achieved. The important role of the thin planar defect layer in the quality of the heterostructures was also verified by numerical simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2009

2008

X. Sun, W. Shen, X. Gai, P. Gu, X. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Optical thin-film reflection filters based on the theory of photonic crystals,” Appl. Opt. 47, C35-C40 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fekete, Z. Várallyay, and R. Szipőcs, “Design of high-bandwidth one- and two-dimensional photonic bandgap dielectric structures at grazing incidence of light,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5330-5336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Massé, G. Pouclet, and S. Ravaine, “Periodic distribution of planar defects in colloidal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 584-587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Liu, Y. B. Liao, Z. M. Liu, and Y. Chen, “Characteristic investigation of high quality three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by self-assembly: theory analysis, simulation and measurement,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 115202 (2008).

2007

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystal heterostructures with a double photonic stop band,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 056102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, X. Liu, Y. Luo, B. Cheng, D. Zhang, and Q. Meng, “Pressure controlled self-assembly of high quality three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, P. Gu, W. Shen, X. Liu, Y. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Design and fabrication of a novel reflection filter,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2899-2902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. Pozas, A. Mihi, M. Ocaña, and H. Míguez, “Building nanocrystalline planar defects within self-assembled photonic crystals by spin-coating,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1183-1187(2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, X. S. Zhao, and Z. Zhou, “Fabrication of PC heterostructures using a horizontal deposition method,” J. Cryst. Growth 288, 205-208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bardosova, M. E. Pemble, I. M. Povey, R. H. Tredgold, and D. E. Whitehead, “Enhanced Bragg reflection from size-matched heterostructure photonic crystal thin films prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093116 (2006).

L. Wang, Q. Yan, and X. S. Zhao, “From planar defect in opal to planar defect in inverse opal,” Langmuir 22, 3481-3484 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, C. Wang, N. Zhang, C.-Y. Wang, and Q. Xing, “Analysis and design of terahertz photonic crystal fibers by an effective-index method,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8462-8465 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. H. Liu, X. Y. Hu, D. X. Zhang, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Meng, “Subpicosecond optical switching in polystyrene opal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Zhou and X. S. Zhao, “Opal and inverse opal fabricated with a flow-controlled vertical deposition method,” Langmuir 21, 4717-4723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Li and F. Marlow, “Controlled arrangement of colloidal crystal strips,” Chem. Mater. 17, 3809-3811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, A. L. Rogach, V. G. Solovyev, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and S. G. Romanov, “Structure-related optical properties of luminescent hetero-opals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1029-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Palacios-Lidón, J. E. Galisteo-López, B. H. Juárez, and C. López, “Engineered planar defects embedded in opals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 341-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakamura, S. Yoshimasa, K. Kyozo, I. Naoki, T. Yu, N. Yusui, O. Shunsuke, W. Yoshinori, I. Kuon, I. Hiroshi, and A. Kiyoshi, “Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot alloptical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606-6614 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, A. Mihi, H. Míguez, I. Rodríguez, G. A. Ozin, F. Meseguer, and V. Kitaev, “Dielectric planar defects in colloidal photonic crystal films,” Adv. Mater. 16, 346-349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Tétreault, H. Míguez, M. S. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Refractive index patterns in silicon inverted colloidal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1167-1172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Egen, R. Voss, B. Griesebock, R. Zentel, S. Romanov, and C. S. Torres, “Heterostructures of polymer photonic crystal films,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3786-3792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Wostyn, Y. Zhao, G. de Schaetzen, L. Hellemans, N. Matsuda, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Insertion of a two-dimensional cavity into a self-assembled PC,” Langmuir 19, 4465-4468(2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kitaev and G. A. Ozin, “Self-assembled surface patterns of binary PCs,” Adv. Mater. 15, 75-78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “PC films: advances in universality and perfection,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 12515589-15598 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Modified spontaneous emission of CdTe quantum dots inside a photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1430-1432 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Liu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast three-dimensional tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2518-2520 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, “Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Szekeres, O. Kamalin, R. A. Schoonheydt, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and I. Dékány, “Ordering and optical properties of monolayers and multilayers of silica spheres deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett method,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3268-3274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Jiang, G. N. Ostojic, R. Narat, D. M. Mittleman, and V. L. Colvin, “The fabrication and bandgap engineering of photonic multilayers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 389-393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Rengarajan, P. Jiang, D. C. Larrabee, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Collodial photonic superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 205103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Toader, S. John, and K. Busch, “Optical trapping, field enhancement and laser cooling in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 8, 217-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Holgado, F. Garcia-Santamaria, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, A. Cintas, H. Miguez, C. J. Serna, M. C. Olpeceres, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, F. Meseguer, and C. Lopez, “Electrophoretic deposition to control artificial opal growth,” Langmuir 15, 4701-4704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. D. Pradhan, I. I. Tarhan, and G. H. Watson, “Impurity modes in the optical stop bands of doped colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 13721-13726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photonics in certain disordered dielectric super lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrishamian, M. S.

Bardosova, M.

M. Bardosova, M. E. Pemble, I. M. Povey, R. H. Tredgold, and D. E. Whitehead, “Enhanced Bragg reflection from size-matched heterostructure photonic crystal thin films prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093116 (2006).

Bertone, J. F.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

M. Holgado, F. Garcia-Santamaria, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, A. Cintas, H. Miguez, C. J. Serna, M. C. Olpeceres, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, F. Meseguer, and C. Lopez, “Electrophoretic deposition to control artificial opal growth,” Langmuir 15, 4701-4704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bo, X.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, and P. V. Braun, “Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

Chen, Y.

G. Q. Liu, Y. B. Liao, Z. M. Liu, and Y. Chen, “Characteristic investigation of high quality three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by self-assembly: theory analysis, simulation and measurement,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 115202 (2008).

Cheng, B.

Z. Zheng, X. Liu, Y. Luo, B. Cheng, D. Zhang, and Q. Meng, “Pressure controlled self-assembly of high quality three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. Y.

Y. H. Liu, X. Y. Hu, D. X. Zhang, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Meng, “Subpicosecond optical switching in polystyrene opal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Liu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast three-dimensional tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2518-2520 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cintas, A.

M. Holgado, F. Garcia-Santamaria, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, A. Cintas, H. Miguez, C. J. Serna, M. C. Olpeceres, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, F. Meseguer, and C. Lopez, “Electrophoretic deposition to control artificial opal growth,” Langmuir 15, 4701-4704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clays, K.

K. Wostyn, Y. Zhao, G. de Schaetzen, L. Hellemans, N. Matsuda, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Insertion of a two-dimensional cavity into a self-assembled PC,” Langmuir 19, 4465-4468(2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Szekeres, O. Kamalin, R. A. Schoonheydt, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and I. Dékány, “Ordering and optical properties of monolayers and multilayers of silica spheres deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett method,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3268-3274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

P. Jiang, G. N. Ostojic, R. Narat, D. M. Mittleman, and V. L. Colvin, “The fabrication and bandgap engineering of photonic multilayers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 389-393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Rengarajan, P. Jiang, D. C. Larrabee, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Collodial photonic superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 205103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Schaetzen, G.

K. Wostyn, Y. Zhao, G. de Schaetzen, L. Hellemans, N. Matsuda, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Insertion of a two-dimensional cavity into a self-assembled PC,” Langmuir 19, 4465-4468(2003).
[CrossRef]

Dékány, I.

M. Szekeres, O. Kamalin, R. A. Schoonheydt, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and I. Dékány, “Ordering and optical properties of monolayers and multilayers of silica spheres deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett method,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3268-3274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

Egen, M.

M. Egen, R. Voss, B. Griesebock, R. Zentel, S. Romanov, and C. S. Torres, “Heterostructures of polymer photonic crystal films,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3786-3792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eychmüller, A.

N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, A. L. Rogach, V. G. Solovyev, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and S. G. Romanov, “Structure-related optical properties of luminescent hetero-opals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1029-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, J.

Gai, X.

Galisteo-López, J. E.

E. Palacios-Lidón, J. E. Galisteo-López, B. H. Juárez, and C. López, “Engineered planar defects embedded in opals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 341-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, A. L. Rogach, V. G. Solovyev, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, and S. G. Romanov, “Structure-related optical properties of luminescent hetero-opals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1029-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Santamaria, F.

M. Holgado, F. Garcia-Santamaria, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, A. Cintas, H. Miguez, C. J. Serna, M. C. Olpeceres, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, F. Meseguer, and C. Lopez, “Electrophoretic deposition to control artificial opal growth,” Langmuir 15, 4701-4704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghaffari, A.

Griesebock, B.

M. Egen, R. Voss, B. Griesebock, R. Zentel, S. Romanov, and C. S. Torres, “Heterostructures of polymer photonic crystal films,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3786-3792 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 1995).

Hellemans, L.

K. Wostyn, Y. Zhao, G. de Schaetzen, L. Hellemans, N. Matsuda, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Insertion of a two-dimensional cavity into a self-assembled PC,” Langmuir 19, 4465-4468(2003).
[CrossRef]

Hiroshi, I.

Holgado, M.

M. Holgado, F. Garcia-Santamaria, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, A. Cintas, H. Miguez, C. J. Serna, M. C. Olpeceres, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, F. Meseguer, and C. Lopez, “Electrophoretic deposition to control artificial opal growth,” Langmuir 15, 4701-4704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. Y.

Y. H. Liu, X. Y. Hu, D. X. Zhang, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Meng, “Subpicosecond optical switching in polystyrene opal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Liu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast three-dimensional tunable photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2518-2520 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. S.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, “Single-crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness,” Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ibisate, M.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup for the measurement of the transmission mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra for the individual crystals A and B (a) and for the AB and BA structures (b). Cross-section SEM images of the AB structure (c) and the BA structure (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of the BTA structure. The inset, measured at a tiny angle from the normal of the cross section, is a magnification of the image enclosed in the rectangle. (b) Transmission spectra for the BTA (solid line) and BA (dashed line) structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (solid line) and simulated (dotted line) transmission spectra for the BA (a) and BTA (b) structures.

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