Abstract

Parameters characterizing the atmospheric turbulence in a 16km maritime optical link were measured for the months of January through June of 2007 on a continuous basis, as conditions allowed. Both the scintillation index σI2 and the atmospheric structure constant Cn2 are found to have a strong dependence on the air-minus-water temperature difference. There is no obvious diurnal variation of Cn2 or of σI2 akin to the reduction in turbulence level seen in terrestrial links in the hour before sunrise and the hour after sunset. Results from the analysis of these data highlight a need for new approaches to modeling beam propagation in a maritime environment.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, and J. Recolons, “Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2099-2108 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hammel, “Turbulence effects on laser propagation in a marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tunick, “Analysis of free-space laser signal intensity over a 2.33 km optical path,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. A. Frederickson, S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, “Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparisons between experiment and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

S. Bendersky, N. S. Kopeika, and N. Blaunstein, “Atmospheric optical turbulence over land in Middle East coastal environments: prediction modeling and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4070-4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahrt, D. Vicars, and E. Moore, “Flow adjustments across sea-surface temperature changes,” Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 111, 553-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh and N. S. Kopeika, “Behavior of structure function of refraction coefficients in different turbulent fields,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6151-6156 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

R. J. Hill and G. R. Ochs, “Surface-layer similarity of the temperature structure parameter,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1348-1353 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. H. Churnside and R. J. Lataitis, “Angle-of-arrival fluctuations of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 1264-1272 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allard, L.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Bendersky, S.

Berglund, F.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blaunstein, N.

Bolander, G.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burris, H. R.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Canedy, C. L.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Champagne, F. H.

Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside and R. J. Lataitis, “Angle-of-arrival fluctuations of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 1264-1272 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. A.

Davidson, K.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, “Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doss-Hammel, S.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, “Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, G. F.

Eaton, F. D.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M. S.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frederickson, P. A.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, “Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friehe, C. A.

Georges, E. Saint

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Gibson, C. H.

Gilbreath, G. C.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Golbraikh, E.

Gong, Z.

Gustafsson, O.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, F.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, S.

S. Hammel, “Turbulence effects on laser propagation in a marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, S. M.

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparisons between experiment and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. J.

R. J. Hill and G. R. Ochs, “Surface-layer similarity of the temperature structure parameter,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1348-1353 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ibanez, J.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Izumi, Y.

Jaremko, J.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Karlsson, K.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopeika, N. S.

Kunz, G. J.

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparisons between experiment and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, T.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

LaRue, J. C.

Lataitis, R. J.

J. H. Churnside and R. J. Lataitis, “Angle-of-arrival fluctuations of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 1264-1272 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. S.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Mahon, R.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahrt, L.

L. Mahrt, D. Vicars, and E. Moore, “Flow adjustments across sea-surface temperature changes,” Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 111, 553-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Moore, C. I.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Moore, E.

L. Mahrt, D. Vicars, and E. Moore, “Flow adjustments across sea-surface temperature changes,” Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 111, 553-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Ochs, G. R.

R. J. Hill and G. R. Ochs, “Surface-layer similarity of the temperature structure parameter,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1348-1353 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, M.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Rao, R.

Recolons, J.

Reed, A. E.

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J. C.

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scharpf, W. J.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sender, J.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Steinvali, O.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stell, M. F.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strohbehn, J. W.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Suite, M. R.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swingen, L. A.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsintikidis, D.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparisons between experiment and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, “Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tunick, A.

A. Tunick, “Analysis of free-space laser signal intensity over a 2.33 km optical path,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uecke, S.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

van Eijk, A. M. J.

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparisons between experiment and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vetelino, F. S.

Vicars, D.

L. Mahrt, D. Vicars, and E. Moore, “Flow adjustments across sea-surface temperature changes,” Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 111, 553-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vilcheck, M. J.

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wasiczko, L.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Wood, T. S.

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Wyngaard, J. C.

Young, C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bound.-Layer Meteorol. (1)

L. Mahrt, D. Vicars, and E. Moore, “Flow adjustments across sea-surface temperature changes,” Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 111, 553-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

R. J. Hill and G. R. Ochs, “Surface-layer similarity of the temperature structure parameter,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1348-1353 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (9)

S. Doss-Hammel, E. Oh, J. C. Ricklin, F. D. Eaton, G. C. Gilbreath, and D. Tsintikidis, “A comparison of optical turbulence models,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tunick, “Analysis of free-space laser signal intensity over a 2.33 km optical path,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, “Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparisons between experiment and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris Jr., W. S. Rabinovich, L. Wasiczko, M. R. Suite, L. A. Swingen, R. Mahon, M. F. Stell, G. C. Gilbreath, and W. J. Scharpf, “Overview of NRL's maritime laser communication test facility,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Hammel, “Turbulence effects on laser propagation in a marine environment,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Stell, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. R. Suite, M. J. Vilcheck, M. A. Davis, R. Mahon, E. Oh, W. S. Rabinovich, G. C. Gilbreath, W. J. Scharpf and A. E. Reed, “Passive optical monitor for atmospheric turbulence and windspeed,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, C. I. Moore, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, D. Larrabee, J. R. Meyer, and I. Vurgaftman, “A comparative study of 3.6 μm and 1.55 μm atmospheric transmission,” Proc. SPIE 6951, 69510Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Suite, L. Wasiczko, J. Jaremko, J. Ibanez, E. Saint Georges, S. Uecke, J. Mock, J. Sender, J. F. Muth, and T. S. Wood, “Lasercomm demonstration during US Navy Trident Warrior 06 Forcenet exercise,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 17-20.

Coupled Boundary Layers/Air-Sea Transfer Defense Research Initiative, www.whoi.edu/science/AOPE/dept/CBLASTmain.html.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plots showing the probability distributions of all values of C n 2 logged each month, giving a visual impression of the likelihood of occurrence of a particular level of turbulence. The mean value of C n 2 is also given on each plot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diurnal variation of C n 2 , as measured using the angle-of-arrival monitor, is plotted for each month. The data were initially averaged for each hour on a daily basis. The mean of the hourly values is plotted together with ± standard deviation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot showing C n 2 as derived from angle-of-arrival measurements for the 24 h period of 23 February 2007. Also shown are the air and water temperatures recorded at each hour.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots showing hourly averaged values of C n 2 as a function of the air-minus-water temperature difference for each month of January through June 2007. The mean values of both the water temperature and of the wind speed are also noted for each month.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots showing hourly averaged values of C n 2 as a function of the air-minus-water temperature difference using the cumulative data from January through June 2007. The data are plotted on a log scale for comparison with the model of Frederickson: (a) corresponds to hourly averaged data acquired when the wind speed was between 0 and 5 m/s , (b) for wind speeds of 5 to 10 m/s , and (c) for wind speeds greater than 10 m/s .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plots showing the diurnal variation of scintillation index σ I 2 for each month. The data were initially averaged for each hour on a daily basis and the mean of the hourly values is plotted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots showing hourly averaged values of the scintillation index σ I 2 as a function of air-minus-water temperature difference for the months of January through June 2007. The mean value of the water temperature is also noted for each month.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a)  C n 2 as deduced from angle-of-arrival measurements recorded throughout the day on 10 January 2007. (b) Corresponding scintillation index σ I 2 calculated from measured intensity variations, as well as the hourly recorded values of water and air temperatures. The air water temperature difference exceeds 3 ° C for the entire period of 24 h .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Azimuthal pointing angle (milliradians) of the beam at launch at CBD as averaged for each hour of observation in February 2007 versus the corresponding air water temperature difference in degrees Celsius.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Elevation pointing angle (milliradians) of the beam at launch at CBD as averaged for each hour of observation in February and March 2007 versus the corresponding air water temperature difference in degrees Celsius.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plots showing the hourly averaged values of the scintillation index σ I 2 as a function of the spherical wave Rytov variance β 0 = ( 0.5 C n 2 k 7 / 6 L 11 / 6 ) 1 / 2 for the months of January through June 2007.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Set of curves generated by the spherical beam analytical model for various values of the inner scale o , for a range of L = 16 km and a laser wavelength of 1550 nm . (b) Observed hourly averaged values of σ I 2 as a function of the spherical wave Rytov variance β 0 = ( 0.5 C n 2 k 7 / 6 L 11 / 6 ) 1 / 2 for the month of February 2007 together with the calculated curve corresponding to an inner scale of 10 mm , chosen to match the approximate peak σ I 2 values.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Power spectral density curves are shown for (a) 8 February 2007, when the water temperature was about 1 ° C and the air temperature 5 ° C , and (b) 1 May 2007, when the water temperature was about 14 ° C and the air temperature 17 ° C . The power in the FFT in 20 Hz frequency bins is averaged over the hour in which the mean wind speed is as noted in the plot legend. The beam propagation direction is 88 ° .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C n 2 = [ n ( 0 ) n ( r ) ] 2 ¯ r 2 / 3 ,
C n 2 = A 2 C T 2 + 2 A B C T q + B 2 C q 2 .
C n 2 = σ β 2 D 1 / 3 1.093 L ,

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