Abstract

We present the hygroscopicity of polymer and copolymer materials in the low terahertz (THz) frequency range using a linear absorption model. We identify COC 6013 and COC 5013 as optimal THz window materials, possessing both low hygroscopicity and high transmission in the THz regime. The correct choice of window material is of significance for transmission THz spectroscopy and of particular interest for THz liquid spectroscopy.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

2007

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid:water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 60-64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604(2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513-517(2006).

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222-11236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Structure and dynamics of nonaqueous mixtures of dipolar liquids. ii. molecular dynamics simulations,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3249-3260(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1971

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arikawa, T.

T. Arikawa, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Characterizing hydration state in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 12-17(2008).
[CrossRef]

Astrand, P.-O.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, A.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid:water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 60-64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, B.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

Buchner, R.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chantry, G. W.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, J. H.

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.-L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cudby, M.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dobroiu, A.

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donhuijsen,

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Everall, N.

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

L. Moeller, J. Federici, A. Sinyukov, C. Xie, H. C. Lim, and R. C. Giles, “Data encoding on terahertz signals for communication and sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 393-395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604(2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, “Broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of biomolecules: A comprehensive study of the dielectric properties of biomolecules in the far-infrared,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Freiburg, Germany, 2005).

Fleming, J. W.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

George, P. A.

Giles, R. C.

Gladden, L. F.

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorenflo, S.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, B. G.

Hein, G.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinkov, I.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, O.

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, D.

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

Hoffmann, S.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, M.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogbin, M.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hui, W.

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. K.

Jeon, S.-G.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513-517(2006).

Jepsen, P.

B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604(2007).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jin, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513-517(2006).

Johns, M. L.

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid:water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 60-64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-J.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513-517(2006).

Kirby, B. J.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knobloch, P.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koeberg, M.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid:water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 60-64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuerner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lambrecht, A.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. C.

Liu, H.-B.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mantle, M. D.

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, A.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S.

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mickan, S. P.

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, K. V.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minami, Y.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, L.

Moller, U.

Munch, J.

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mura, C.

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

T. Arikawa, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Characterizing hydration state in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 12-17(2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B.-H.

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obradovic, J.

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Png, G.

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podzorov, A.

Rana, F.

Rehberg, E.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rutz, F.

Sammon, C.

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schildnecht, C.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222-11236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Structure and dynamics of nonaqueous mixtures of dipolar liquids. ii. molecular dynamics simulations,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3249-3260(2000).
[CrossRef]

Schoebel, J.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, A.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, T.

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shvartsman, R.

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A.

Smith, A. E.

Smith, P. M.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, M.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swart, R.

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

T. Arikawa, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Characterizing hydration state in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 12-17(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuno, M.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tauer, U.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thrane, L.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venables, D. S.

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222-11236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Structure and dynamics of nonaqueous mixtures of dipolar liquids. ii. molecular dynamics simulations,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3249-3260(2000).
[CrossRef]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, R.

Willis, H. A.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid:water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 60-64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yarwood, J.

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, M. Tatsuno, Y. Minami, M. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Investigation of inflammable liquids by terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid:water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439, 60-64 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Arikawa, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Characterizing hydration state in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457, 12-17(2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, P. M. Smith, M. Cudby, and H. A. Willis, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-477 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil-water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421, 494-498 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Sengupta, A. Bandyopadhyay, B. Bowden, J. Harrington, and J. Federici, “Characterisation of olefin copolymers using terahertz spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1477-1479(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kuerner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Astrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222-11236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Structure and dynamics of nonaqueous mixtures of dipolar liquids. ii. molecular dynamics simulations,” J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3249-3260(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 513-517(2006).

J. Opt. B

S. P. Mickan, R. Shvartsman, J. Munch, X.-C. Zhang, and D. Abbott, “Low noise laser-based T-ray spectroscopy of liquids using double-modulated differential time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. B 6, S786-S795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

C. Sammon, C. Mura, J. Yarwood, N. Everall, R. Swart, and D. Hodge, “FTIR-ATR studies of the structure and dynamics of water molecules in polymeric matrices. a comparison of PET and PVC,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 3402-3411(1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildnecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875-3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Png, J. Choi, B.-H. Ng, S. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer

J. Obradovic, J. H. Collins, O. Hirsch, M. D. Mantle, M. L. Johns, and L. F. Gladden, “The use of THz time-domain reflection measurements to investigate solvent diffusion in polymers,” Polymer 48, 3494-3503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604(2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. Tribe, B. Cole, M. Hogbin, and M. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dobroiu, Y. Sasaki, T. Shibuya, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “THz-wave spectroscopy applied to the detection of illicit drugs in mail,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1566-1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

“Standard test method for water absorption of plastics,” ASTM D570 (ASTM International, 2005).

“Standard test method for water absorption of plastics,” in Annual Book of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International, 1986), Vol. 8.01, pp. 532-533.

B. M. Fischer, “Broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of biomolecules: A comprehensive study of the dielectric properties of biomolecules in the far-infrared,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Freiburg, Germany, 2005).

“Dielectric properties of polymers,” Zeus Technical White Paper (Zeus, 2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

THz-TDS spectrometer schematic for polymer hygroscopicity measurement. This schematic diagram depicts a standard THz spectrometer configured for characterizing the hygroscopicity of a polymer. The Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser generating a train of < 50 fs pulses at 76 MHz is used as a source of optical pulses. This source is split into a pump beam and a probe beam using a beam splitter. The pump beam generates the THz pulse as the laser is incident on an emitting photoconductive antenna. The generated THz pulse is collimated and focused onto the polymer sample using the first pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors. The transmitted THz pulse is recollimated and refocused onto the detector using the second pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors. The probe beam gates the incoming transmitted THz pulse by focusing the probe laser beam onto the photoconductive antenna at the detector. The detected signal is fed into the lock-in amplifier for signal extraction and processing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of PMMA. This figure illustrates the absorption coefficient of PMMA at different hydration levels. It can be observed that there is a distinct difference between the hydrated and the dehydrated state. Also, it is noted that the hydration state of PMMA saturates after 24 h. The hygroscopicity measurement indicates that the PMMA absorbs 0.75% of water after 24 h and 1.8% after 120 h of hydration. The increase in absorption after the hydration for 24 h and 120 h is due to its methyl ( CH 3 ) polar group, which binds strongly to water molecules.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of PC. This figure depicts the absorption coefficient of PC at different hydration levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra of COC 6013. This figure compares the absorption coefficients of nonpolar polymer COC 6013 at different hydration levels. It is clear that the effects of hydration are much less compared to PC and PMMA.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Variation in Absorption Coefficient and Hygroscopicity of Polymer Materials for 24 h and 120 h Measurements at 1 THz a

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ˜ sam ( ω ) = T 12 ( ω ) . P 2 ( ω , d ) . T 23 ( ω ) . A ( ω ) . FP ( ω ) ,
E ˜ ref ( ω ) = T 13 ( ω ) . P air ( ω , d ) . A ( ω ) ,
T ˜ ( ω ) = E ˜ sam E ˜ ref .
κ ( ω ) = c 0 ω d ln ( ( 1 + n ( ω ) ) 2 4 n ( ω ) p ( ω ) ) ,
α ( ω ) = 2 κ ( ω ) ω c 0 .
α H ( ω ) = ( 1 c x ) α DH ( ω ) + c x α w ( ω ) ,
c x = 100 α H ( ω ) α DH ( ω ) α w ( ω ) α DH ( ω ) .

Metrics