Abstract

A method for testing the physical and optical properties of hydrogel thin films is reported based on using long-period fiber gratings. For humidity levels from 50% to 70% RH, a wavelength decrease of 11.0nm is observed, with a sensitivity of 0.6nm/%RH. For humidity levels from 70% to 98% RH, a wavelength increase of 6.3nm is seen, with a sensitivity of 0.2nm/%RH. For humidity levels greater than 60% RH, the transmission loss at resonance increases rapidly, showing a high degree of sensitivity of 0.5dB/%RH. The blueshift of the wavelength was seen to be due to a thickening of the overlay, while the redshift of wavelength is due to the contribution of the drop in refractive index of the overlay. The results match well with what is expected theoretically.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 74, 74-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

I. Y. Galaev and B. Mattiasson, “'Smart' polymers and what they could do in biotechnology and medicine,” Trends Biotechnol. 17, 335-340 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Suzuki and T. Ishii, “Phase coexistence of neutral polymer gels under mechanical constraint,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2289-2296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. M. Eichenbaum, P. F. Kiser, S. A. Simon, and D. Needham, “pH and ion-triggered volume response of anionic hydrogel microspheres,” Macromolecules 31, 5084-5093 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 648-650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shiga, “Deformation and viscoelastic behavior of polymer gels in electric fields,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 134, 131-163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. Y. Galaev, M. N. Gupta, and B. Mattiasson, “Use smart polymers for bioseparations,” Chemtech 26, 19-25 (1996).

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Achaerandio, M.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G. J.

Bhatia, V.

Bucholtz, F.

Bulmus, V.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, D.

Chen, G.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilkoti, A.

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, “Creating 'smart' surfaces using stimuli responsive polymers,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1243-1247(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claus, R. O.

Cole, C. A.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Villar, I.

Ding, Z.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichenbaum, G. M.

G. M. Eichenbaum, P. F. Kiser, S. A. Simon, and D. Needham, “pH and ion-triggered volume response of anionic hydrogel microspheres,” Macromolecules 31, 5084-5093 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elster, J. L.

J. L. Elster, “Long period grating-based pH sensors for corrosion monitoring,” M.S. thesis (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999).

Falciai, R.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 74, 74-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fillmore, D.

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fong, R.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galaev, I. Y.

I. Y. Galaev and B. Mattiasson, “'Smart' polymers and what they could do in biotechnology and medicine,” Trends Biotechnol. 17, 335-340 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Galaev, M. N. Gupta, and B. Mattiasson, “Use smart polymers for bioseparations,” Chemtech 26, 19-25 (1996).

Gupta, M. N.

I. Y. Galaev, M. N. Gupta, and B. Mattiasson, “Use smart polymers for bioseparations,” Chemtech 26, 19-25 (1996).

Harris, J. M.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A. S.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Hoffman, “Intelligent polymers (in medicine and biotechnology),” in Encyclopedia of Polymeric Materials (CRC Press, 1996), pp. 3282-3292.

Ishii, T.

A. Suzuki and T. Ishii, “Phase coexistence of neutral polymer gels under mechanical constraint,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2289-2296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersey, A. D.

Kiser, P. F.

G. M. Eichenbaum, P. F. Kiser, S. A. Simon, and D. Needham, “pH and ion-triggered volume response of anionic hydrogel microspheres,” Macromolecules 31, 5084-5093 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lackey, C. A.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

Long, C. J.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matias, I. R.

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiasson, B.

I. Y. Galaev and B. Mattiasson, “'Smart' polymers and what they could do in biotechnology and medicine,” Trends Biotechnol. 17, 335-340 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Galaev, M. N. Gupta, and B. Mattiasson, “Use smart polymers for bioseparations,” Chemtech 26, 19-25 (1996).

Mignani, A. G.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 74, 74-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyata, T.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monji, N.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, J. E.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, N.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murthy, N.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabeshima, Y.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamae, K.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nath, N.

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, “Creating 'smart' surfaces using stimuli responsive polymers,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1243-1247(2002).
[CrossRef]

Needham, D.

G. M. Eichenbaum, P. F. Kiser, S. A. Simon, and D. Needham, “pH and ion-triggered volume response of anionic hydrogel microspheres,” Macromolecules 31, 5084-5093 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishino, T.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishio, I.

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nowinski, R. C.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oka, H.

M. Yokota, H. Oka, and T. Yoshino, “Mechanically induced long period fiber grating and its application for distributed sensing,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002. OFS 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 135-138.
[CrossRef]

Park, T. G.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrick, H. J.

Press, O. W.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priest, J. H.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rees, N. D.

Shah, A.

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shiga, T.

T. Shiga, “Deformation and viscoelastic behavior of polymer gels in electric fields,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 134, 131-163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimoboji, T.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoemaker, S.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, S. A.

G. M. Eichenbaum, P. F. Kiser, S. A. Simon, and D. Needham, “pH and ion-triggered volume response of anionic hydrogel microspheres,” Macromolecules 31, 5084-5093 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stayton, P. S.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.-T.

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki and T. Ishii, “Phase coexistence of neutral polymer gels under mechanical constraint,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2289-2296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swislow, G.

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

Tsao, C.

C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis (Oxford U. Press,1992).

Vannini, A.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 74, 74-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wakaki, R.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, A.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H. J.

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

M. Yokota, H. Oka, and T. Yoshino, “Mechanically induced long period fiber grating and its application for distributed sensing,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002. OFS 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 135-138.
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

M. Yokota, H. Oka, and T. Yoshino, “Mechanically induced long period fiber grating and its application for distributed sensing,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002. OFS 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 135-138.
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Nath and A. Chilkoti, “Creating 'smart' surfaces using stimuli responsive polymers,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1243-1247(2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

T. Shiga, “Deformation and viscoelastic behavior of polymer gels in electric fields,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 134, 131-163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chemtech (1)

I. Y. Galaev, M. N. Gupta, and B. Mattiasson, “Use smart polymers for bioseparations,” Chemtech 26, 19-25 (1996).

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1)

A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, V. Bulmus, G. Chen, J. Chen, C. Cheung, A. Chilkoti, Z. Ding, L. Dong, R. Fong, C. A. Lackey, C. J. Long, M. Miura, J. E. Morris, N. Murthy, Y. Nabeshima, T. G. Park, O. W. Press, T. Shimoboji, S. Shoemaker, H. J. Yang, N. Monji, R. C. Nowinski, C. A. Cole, J. H. Priest, J. M. Harris, K. Nakamae, T. Nishino, and T. Miyata, “Really smart bioconjugates of smart polymers and receptor proteins,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52, 577-586 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Suzuki and T. Ishii, “Phase coexistence of neutral polymer gels under mechanical constraint,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2289-2296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Macromolecules (1)

G. M. Eichenbaum, P. F. Kiser, S. A. Simon, and D. Needham, “pH and ion-triggered volume response of anionic hydrogel microspheres,” Macromolecules 31, 5084-5093 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces,” Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S.-T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, “Phase transition in ionic gels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1636-1639 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 74, 74-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

I. Y. Galaev and B. Mattiasson, “'Smart' polymers and what they could do in biotechnology and medicine,” Trends Biotechnol. 17, 335-340 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. S. Hoffman, “Intelligent polymers (in medicine and biotechnology),” in Encyclopedia of Polymeric Materials (CRC Press, 1996), pp. 3282-3292.

J. L. Elster, “Long period grating-based pH sensors for corrosion monitoring,” M.S. thesis (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999).

M. Yokota, H. Oka, and T. Yoshino, “Mechanically induced long period fiber grating and its application for distributed sensing,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, 2002. OFS 2002 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 135-138.
[CrossRef]

C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis (Oxford U. Press,1992).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the four-layer waveguide structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength shift versus refractive index of overlay.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength shift versus the thickness of overlay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectrum of the LPFG.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in the transmission spectrum of the LPFG with an increase in humidity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resonant dip depth and wavelength versus percent RH with increasing percent RH values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Resonant wavelength versus percent RH for a full humidity cycle (increase then decrease).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Resonant dip depth versus percent RH for a full humidity cycle (increase then decrease).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ ν = [ n eff , co ( λ ν ) n eff , cl ν ( λ ν ) ] Λ ,
T ν = 1 sin 2 ( κ ν L ) ,
E j = ( Ψ r ϕ β ϖ ε j Φ r Ψ r β ϖ ε j 2 Φ r ϕ k 2 n j 2 β 2 i ϖ ε j Φ ) , H j = ( Φ r ϕ + β ϖ μ Ψ r Φ r + β ϖ μ 2 Ψ r ϕ k 2 n j 2 β 2 i ϖ μ Ψ ) .
( 2 r 2 + r r + 2 r 2 ϕ 2 + k 2 n j 2 β 2 ) ( Φ , Ψ ) = 0.
Φ ( r ) = { A 1 Z ν , 1 ( u 1 r ) A 2 Z ν , 2 ( u 2 r ) + B 2 T ν , 2 ( u 2 r ) A 3 Z ν , 3 ( u 3 r ) + B 3 T ν , 3 ( u 3 r ) B 4 K ν ( w 4 r ) , Ψ ( r ) = { C 1 Z ν , 1 ( u 1 r ) r a 1 C 2 Z ν , 2 ( u 2 r ) + D 2 T ν , 2 ( u 2 r ) a 1 < r a 2 C 3 Z ν , 3 ( u 3 r ) + D 3 T ν , 3 ( u 3 r ) a 2 < r a 3 D 4 K ν ( w 4 r ) r > a 3 ,
Z ν , j ( x ) = { J ν ( x ) I ν ( x ) , T ν , j ( x ) = { Y ν ( x ) n eff < n j K ν ( x ) n eff > n j , u j = 2 π λ | n j 2 n eff 2 | , w 4 = 2 π λ n eff 2 n 4 2 ,
n 2 p = ( 1 V ) n 0 2 + V n p 2 ,
% RH = { 100 % 2.01 % / dB ( T + 27.4 dB ) T < 12 dB 50 % 1.66 % / nm ( λ ν 1558.1 nm ) T > 12 dB , λ ν < 1558 nm indeterminate   ( < 50 % ) λ ν > 1558 nm ,

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