Abstract

A microscopy system has been constructed that is capable of simultaneously acquiring both Raman spectra and angle-resolved elastic-scattering patterns in either epi- or transillumination modes with a 7 μm spot size. The benefits and drawbacks of the epi- and transillumination modalities are discussed. Validation studies have been performed on single beads of a few micrometers in size, as well as on ensembles of submicrometer particles. In addition, transilluminated Raman and elastic-scattering spectra were obtained from single granulocytes and peripheral blood monocytes. Both the Raman- and the elastic-scattering channels show clear differences between the two types of immune cells.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

2007 (6)

2006 (2)

R. S. Brock, X.-H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 25-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90, 648-656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

M. D. Mannie, T. J. McConnell, C. Xie, and Y.-Q. Li, “Activation-dependent phases of t cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy,” J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, “Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidative-stress-induced mitochondrial swelling,” Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938(2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, D. Chen, and Y.-Q. Li, “Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1800-1802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Wavelength-dependent scattering in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13, 5450-5462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, “Mie theory interpretations of light scattering from intact cells,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2442-2444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: Structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443-449 (2004).

2003 (3)

G. Fossati, D. A. Moulding, D. G. Spiller, R. J. Moots, M. R. H. White, and S. W. Edwards, “The mitochondrial network of human neutrophils: Role in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activation, and commitment to apoptosis,” J. Immunol. 170, 1964-1972 (2003).

C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Automated method for subtraction of fluorescence from biological Raman spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1363-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72, 1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. M. K. Enejder, T.-W. Koo, J. Oh, M. Hunter, S. Sasic, M. S. Feld, and G. L. Horowitz, “Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2004-2006 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Nijssen, T. C. B. Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64-69 (2002).

N. N. Boustany, R. Drezek, and N. V. Thakor, “Calcium-induced alterations in mitochondrial morphology quantified in situ with optical scatter imaging,” Biophys. J. 83, 1691-1700 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Sadahira, K. Akisada, T. Sugihara, S. Hata, K. Uehira, N. Muraki, and T. Manabe, “Comparative ultrastructural study of cytotoxic granules in nasal natural killer cell lymphoma, intestinal T-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma,” Virchows Archiv . 438, 280-288 (2001).

M. T. Valentine, A. K. Popp, D. A. Weitz, and P. D. Kaplan, “Microscope-based static light-scattering instrument,” Opt. Lett. 26, 890-892 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

K. U. Schallreuter, M. Zschiesche, J. Moore, A. Panske, N. A. Hibberts, F. H. Herrmann, H. R. Metelmann, and J. Sawatzki, “In vivo evidence for compromised phenylalanine metabolism in vitiligo,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243, 395-399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369-382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

1986 (1)

1983 (2)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley Interscience, 1983).

P. Brederoo, J. van der Meulen, and A. M. Mommaas-Kienhuis, “Development of the granule population in neutrophil granulocytes from human bone marrow,” Cell Tissue Res. 234, 469-496 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. M. Mayhew, A. J. Burgess, C. D. Gregory, and M. E. Atkinson, “On the problem of counting and sizing mitochondria: a general reappraisal based on ultrastructural studies of mammalian lymphocytes,” Cell Tissue Res. 204, 297-303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

B. Jasse, R. S. Chao, and J. L. Koenig, “Laser Raman scattering in uniaxially oriented atactic polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci. 16, 2157-2169 (1978).

1969 (2)

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

G. Brittinger, R. Hirschhorn, K. Hirschhorn, and G. Weissmann, “Effect of pokeweed mitogen on lymphocyte lysosomes,” J. Cell Biol. 40, 843-846 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

G. E. Palade, “An electron microscope study of the mitochondrial structure,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1, 188-211 (1953).

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akisada, K.

Y. Sadahira, K. Akisada, T. Sugihara, S. Hata, K. Uehira, N. Muraki, and T. Manabe, “Comparative ultrastructural study of cytotoxic granules in nasal natural killer cell lymphoma, intestinal T-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma,” Virchows Archiv . 438, 280-288 (2001).

Alonso, M. A.

Andersson, C.

Atkinson, M. E.

T. M. Mayhew, A. J. Burgess, C. D. Gregory, and M. E. Atkinson, “On the problem of counting and sizing mitochondria: a general reappraisal based on ultrastructural studies of mammalian lymphocytes,” Cell Tissue Res. 204, 297-303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Baeb, E.

P. P. Banada, S. Guob, B. Bayraktar, E. Baeb, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1664-1671(2007).
[CrossRef]

Banada, P. P.

P. P. Banada, S. Guob, B. Bayraktar, E. Baeb, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1664-1671(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bansil, R.

Bayraktar, B.

P. P. Banada, S. Guob, B. Bayraktar, E. Baeb, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1664-1671(2007).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A. J.

Beuthan, J.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369-382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

Bhunia, A. K.

P. P. Banada, S. Guob, B. Bayraktar, E. Baeb, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1664-1671(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, C. E.

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, “Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidative-stress-induced mitochondrial swelling,” Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley Interscience, 1983).

Boone, C. W.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Boustany, N. N.

N. N. Boustany, R. Drezek, and N. V. Thakor, “Calcium-induced alterations in mitochondrial morphology quantified in situ with optical scatter imaging,” Biophys. J. 83, 1691-1700 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brederoo, P.

P. Brederoo, J. van der Meulen, and A. M. Mommaas-Kienhuis, “Development of the granule population in neutrophil granulocytes from human bone marrow,” Cell Tissue Res. 234, 469-496 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brittinger, G.

G. Brittinger, R. Hirschhorn, K. Hirschhorn, and G. Weissmann, “Effect of pokeweed mitogen on lymphocyte lysosomes,” J. Cell Biol. 40, 843-846 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brock, R. S.

R. S. Brock, X.-H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 25-36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, A. J.

T. M. Mayhew, A. J. Burgess, C. D. Gregory, and M. E. Atkinson, “On the problem of counting and sizing mitochondria: a general reappraisal based on ultrastructural studies of mammalian lymphocytes,” Cell Tissue Res. 204, 297-303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, D. J.

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, “Light scattering from intact cells reports oxidative-stress-induced mitochondrial swelling,” Biophys. J. 88, 2929-2938(2005).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, P. J.

A. Nijssen, T. C. B. Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64-69 (2002).

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90, 648-656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, R. S.

B. Jasse, R. S. Chao, and J. L. Koenig, “Laser Raman scattering in uniaxially oriented atactic polystyrene,” J. Polym. Sci. 16, 2157-2169 (1978).

Chen, D.

Choi, W.

Christensen, D. H.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: Structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443-449 (2004).

Cipolloni, P. B.

Cottrell, W. J.

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, “Index-of-refraction-dependent subcellular light scattering observed with organelle-specific dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010(2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Cottrell, J. D. Wilson, and T. H. Foster, “Microscope enabling multimodality imaging, angle-resolved scattering, and scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2348-2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

W. Choi, C.-C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1596-1598(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

N. N. Boustany, R. Drezek, and N. V. Thakor, “Calcium-induced alterations in mitochondrial morphology quantified in situ with optical scatter imaging,” Biophys. J. 83, 1691-1700 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cells: Finite-difference time-domain simulations and goniometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3651-3661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A.

Edwards, S. W.

G. Fossati, D. A. Moulding, D. G. Spiller, R. J. Moots, M. R. H. White, and S. W. Edwards, “The mitochondrial network of human neutrophils: Role in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activation, and commitment to apoptosis,” J. Immunol. 170, 1964-1972 (2003).

Enejder, A. M. K.

Fang, H.

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C.-C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1596-1598(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Enejder, T.-W. Koo, J. Oh, M. Hunter, S. Sasic, M. S. Feld, and G. L. Horowitz, “Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2004-2006 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Fossati, G.

G. Fossati, D. A. Moulding, D. G. Spiller, R. J. Moots, M. R. H. White, and S. W. Edwards, “The mitochondrial network of human neutrophils: Role in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activation, and commitment to apoptosis,” J. Immunol. 170, 1964-1972 (2003).

Foster, T. H.

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, “Index-of-refraction-dependent subcellular light scattering observed with organelle-specific dyes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010(2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Nijssen, T. C. B. Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64-69 (2002).

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M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: Structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443-449 (2004).

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A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
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N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72, 1-9 (2003).
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Philipsen, P. A.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: Structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443-449 (2004).

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A. Nijssen, T. C. B. Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64-69 (2002).

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A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
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P. P. Banada, S. Guob, B. Bayraktar, E. Baeb, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1664-1671(2007).
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Robinson, J. P.

P. P. Banada, S. Guob, B. Bayraktar, E. Baeb, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1664-1671(2007).
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Y. Sadahira, K. Akisada, T. Sugihara, S. Hata, K. Uehira, N. Muraki, and T. Manabe, “Comparative ultrastructural study of cytotoxic granules in nasal natural killer cell lymphoma, intestinal T-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma,” Virchows Archiv . 438, 280-288 (2001).

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Sasic, S.

Sawatzki, J.

K. U. Schallreuter, M. Zschiesche, J. Moore, A. Panske, N. A. Hibberts, F. H. Herrmann, H. R. Metelmann, and J. Sawatzki, “In vivo evidence for compromised phenylalanine metabolism in vitiligo,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243, 395-399 (1998).
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K. U. Schallreuter, M. Zschiesche, J. Moore, A. Panske, N. A. Hibberts, F. H. Herrmann, H. R. Metelmann, and J. Sawatzki, “In vivo evidence for compromised phenylalanine metabolism in vitiligo,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243, 395-399 (1998).
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A. Nijssen, T. C. B. Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 64-69 (2002).

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M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: Structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 443-449 (2004).

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G. Fossati, D. A. Moulding, D. G. Spiller, R. J. Moots, M. R. H. White, and S. W. Edwards, “The mitochondrial network of human neutrophils: Role in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activation, and commitment to apoptosis,” J. Immunol. 170, 1964-1972 (2003).

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A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
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A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051604 (2005).
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Y. Sadahira, K. Akisada, T. Sugihara, S. Hata, K. Uehira, N. Muraki, and T. Manabe, “Comparative ultrastructural study of cytotoxic granules in nasal natural killer cell lymphoma, intestinal T-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma,” Virchows Archiv . 438, 280-288 (2001).

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J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90, 648-656 (2006).
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Y. Sadahira, K. Akisada, T. Sugihara, S. Hata, K. Uehira, N. Muraki, and T. Manabe, “Comparative ultrastructural study of cytotoxic granules in nasal natural killer cell lymphoma, intestinal T-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma,” Virchows Archiv . 438, 280-288 (2001).

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N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72, 1-9 (2003).
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van der Meulen, J.

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N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, B. Willekens, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells,” Biopolymers 72, 1-9 (2003).
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