Abstract

We make a novel telescope design using a pair of Alvarez lenses. Previous examples using these types of lenses were single elements used just to provide a change in power. Consequently, the location of the object and/or image plane must move. In this effort, we combine two elements to form a telescope. In this manner, we can fix the location of the object and image plane and simply change magnification. We describe the shapes of the Alvarez lenses used, as well as the advantages, the disadvantages, and the differences between a telescope using Alvarez lenses and a traditional telescope.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. W. Alvarez, “Two-element variable-power spherical lens,” U.S. patent 3,305,294 (21 February 1967).
  2. L. W. Alvarez and W. E. Humphrey, “Variable-power lens and system,” U.S. patent 3,507,565 (21 April 1970).
  3. L. W. Alvarez, “Development of variable focus lenses and a new refractor,” J. Am. Optometric Assoc. 49, 24-29(1978).
  4. A. N. Simonov and G. Vdovin, “Cubic optical elements for an accommodative intraocular lens,” Opt. Express 14, 7757-7775(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. M. Barton, S. N. Dixit, L. J. Summers, C. A. Thompson, K. Avicola, and J. Wilhelmsen, “Diffractive Alvarez lens,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1-3 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1978 (1)

L. W. Alvarez, “Development of variable focus lenses and a new refractor,” J. Am. Optometric Assoc. 49, 24-29(1978).

Alvarez, L. W.

L. W. Alvarez, “Two-element variable-power spherical lens,” U.S. patent 3,305,294 (21 February 1967).

L. W. Alvarez and W. E. Humphrey, “Variable-power lens and system,” U.S. patent 3,507,565 (21 April 1970).

L. W. Alvarez, “Development of variable focus lenses and a new refractor,” J. Am. Optometric Assoc. 49, 24-29(1978).

Avicola, K.

Baker, J. T.

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. M.

Dixit, S. N.

Humphrey, W. E.

L. W. Alvarez and W. E. Humphrey, “Variable-power lens and system,” U.S. patent 3,507,565 (21 April 1970).

Martinez, T.

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. M.

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Restaino, S. R.

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simonov, A. N.

Summers, L. J.

Thompson, C. A.

Vdovin, G.

Wick, D. V.

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelmsen, J.

J. Am. Optometric Assoc. (1)

L. W. Alvarez, “Development of variable focus lenses and a new refractor,” J. Am. Optometric Assoc. 49, 24-29(1978).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Martinez, D. V. Wick, D. M. Payne, J. T. Baker, and S. R. Restaino, “Non-mechanical zoom system,” Proc. SPIE 5234, 375-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. W. Alvarez, “Two-element variable-power spherical lens,” U.S. patent 3,305,294 (21 February 1967).

L. W. Alvarez and W. E. Humphrey, “Variable-power lens and system,” U.S. patent 3,507,565 (21 April 1970).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Element surface profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) In the zero power configuration, the Alvarez lens can be seen as a plane parallel plate with a thickness 2 E . (b) and (c) Symmetric displacement in opposite directions in the x axis result in variation in power proportional to the constant A and the displacement of the elements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration for a Keplerian telescope system using two Alvarez lenses, maintaining the fixed separation and generating a variation in magnification by modifying the focal length of f a 1 ( x ) and f a 2 ( x ) , with small displacements in the x axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focal length and power variation range for the Alvarez lenses with respect to the lateral displacement amount of each surface along the x axis in opposite directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magnification power variation for the zoom system using Alvarez lenses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image magnification for zoom system. (a)  | MP | = 0.4687 , (b)  | MP | = 0.9374 , and (c)  | MP | = 2.0625 .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sample Points for the Zoom System

Equations (2)

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t ( x , y ) = A ( x y 2 + 1 3 x 3 ) + E ,
A = Δ P 4 Δ d ( n 1 ) ,

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