Abstract

We analyze the effect of anisoplanatic atmospheric turbulence on the measurement accuracy of an extended-source Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor (HSWFS). We have numerically simulated an extended-source HSWFS, using a scenery of the solar surface that is imaged through anisoplanatic atmospheric turbulence and imaging optics. Solar extended-source HSWFSs often use cross-correlation algorithms in combination with subpixel shift finding algorithms to estimate the wavefront gradient, two of which were tested for their effect on the measurement accuracy. We find that the measurement error of an extended-source HSWFS is governed mainly by the optical geometry of the HSWFS, employed subpixel finding algorithm, and phase anisoplanatism. Our results show that effects of scintillation anisoplanatism are negligible when cross-correlation algorithms are used.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. R. Rimmele and R. R. Radick, “Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 72-81 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Marino, T. Rimmele, and J. Christou, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from adaptive optics loop data: validation and results,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723W(2006).
    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

N. Védrenne, V. Michau, C. Robert, and J.-M. Conan, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront estimation with extended sources: anisoplanatism influence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2980-2993(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Marino, T. Rimmele, and J. Christou, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from adaptive optics loop data: validation and results,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723W(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 613-624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, “Optical turbulence profiles at Mauna Kea measured by MASS and SCIDAR,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34-46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Poyneer, “Scene-based Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensing: analysis and simulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5807-5815(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. R. Rimmele and R. R. Radick, “Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 72-81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209-224(1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. J. November and G. W. Simon, “Precise proper-motion measurement of solar granulation,” Astrophys. J. 333, 427-442(1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

O. von der Lühe, “A study of a tracking correlation method to improve imaging quality of ground-based solar telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 119, 85-94 (1983).

Adkins, S.

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berkefeld, T.

O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, P.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, J.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, T. J.

D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christou, J.

J. Marino, T. Rimmele, and J. Christou, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from adaptive optics loop data: validation and results,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723W(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, “Optical turbulence profiles at Mauna Kea measured by MASS and SCIDAR,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collados, M.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

Dainty, J. C.

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209-224(1992).
[CrossRef]

Denker, C.

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dettori, P. M.

G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Didkovsky, L. V.

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, S.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fontanella, J.-C.

V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-C. Fontanella, “Wavefront sensing from extended sources,” in NSO/SP Summer Workshop Series (Real Time and Post Facto Solar Image Correction), No. 13, R.Raddick, ed. (National Solar Observatory, 1992), pp. 124-128.

Fusco, T.

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 613-624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Glindemann, A.

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209-224(1992).
[CrossRef]

Goode, P. R.

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, B.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, E. R.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegwer, S.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegwer, S. L.

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, F.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horst, T.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, R. P.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, H.

D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Komsa, M.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, J.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lane, R. G.

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209-224(1992).
[CrossRef]

Lecinski, A.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, D. H.

D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lofdahl, M. G.

G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maitre, H.

Marino, J.

J. Marino, T. Rimmele, and J. Christou, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from adaptive optics loop data: validation and results,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723W(2006).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Védrenne, V. Michau, C. Robert, and J.-M. Conan, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront estimation with extended sources: anisoplanatism influence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2980-2993(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 613-624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-C. Fontanella, “Wavefront sensing from extended sources,” in NSO/SP Summer Workshop Series (Real Time and Post Facto Solar Image Correction), No. 13, R.Raddick, ed. (National Solar Observatory, 1992), pp. 124-128.

Nicolle, M.

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

November, L. J.

L. J. November and G. W. Simon, “Precise proper-motion measurement of solar granulation,” Astrophys. J. 333, 427-442(1988).
[CrossRef]

Oncley, S.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Penn, M.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piganeau, E.

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

Radick, R.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radick, R. R.

T. R. Rimmele and R. R. Radick, “Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 72-81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, D.

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards, K.

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

Rimmele, T.

J. Marino, T. Rimmele, and J. Christou, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from adaptive optics loop data: validation and results,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723W(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T. R.

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34-46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele and R. R. Radick, “Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 72-81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics: conventional and multi-conjugate,” Proceedings of the 2005 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2005), p. 62723W.

Robert, C.

Roche, J. M.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

Rousset, G.

V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-C. Fontanella, “Wavefront sensing from extended sources,” in NSO/SP Summer Workshop Series (Real Time and Post Facto Solar Image Correction), No. 13, R.Raddick, ed. (National Solar Observatory, 1992), pp. 124-128.

Sandler, D. G.

D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scharmer, G. B.

G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schelenz, T.

O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shand, M.

G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simon, G. W.

L. J. November and G. W. Simon, “Precise proper-motion measurement of solar granulation,” Astrophys. J. 333, 427-442(1988).
[CrossRef]

Socas-Navarro, H.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soltau, D.

O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streander, K.

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S. J.

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, “Optical turbulence profiles at Mauna Kea measured by MASS and SCIDAR,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tritschler, A.

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Upton, R. S.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

Védrenne, N.

Velluet, M.-T.

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

Vernin, J.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, “Optical turbulence profiles at Mauna Kea measured by MASS and SCIDAR,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

von der Lühe, O.

O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. von der Lühe, “A study of a tracking correlation method to improve imaging quality of ground-based solar telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 119, 85-94 (1983).

Wöger, F.

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ziad, A.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, “Optical turbulence profiles at Mauna Kea measured by MASS and SCIDAR,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

O. von der Lühe, “A study of a tracking correlation method to improve imaging quality of ground-based solar telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 119, 85-94 (1983).

Astrophys. J. (1)

L. J. November and G. W. Simon, “Precise proper-motion measurement of solar granulation,” Astrophys. J. 333, 427-442(1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

S. J. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, “Optical turbulence profiles at Mauna Kea measured by MASS and SCIDAR,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Denker, A. Tritschler, T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. L. Hegwer, and F. Wöger, “Adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory: instrument description and first observations,” Proc. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 170-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, S. L. Hegwer, T. Rimmele, L. V. Didkovsky, and P. R. Goode, “Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 593-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, P. M. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370-380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Sandler, H. Hyman, T. J. Brinkley, and D. H. Leslie, “MWIR adaptive optics system for imaging missile defense tests using the 3.7 m AEOS telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4091, 283-291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. M. Roche, S. L. Hegwer, R. P. Hubbard, E. R. Hansen, B. Goodrich, and R. S. Upton, “The wavefront correction system for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, Proc. SPIE 6272, 627212(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Marino, T. Rimmele, and J. Christou, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from adaptive optics loop data: validation and results,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723W(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34-46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele and R. R. Radick, “Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 72-81 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Michau, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, C. Robert, M.-T. Velluet, and E. Piganeau, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with extended sources,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030B (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Hill, J. Beckers, P. Brandt, J. Briggs, T. Brown, W. Brown, M. Collados, C. Denker, S. Fletcher, S. Hegwer, T. Horst, M. Komsa, J. Kuhn, A. Lecinski, H. Lin, S. Oncley, M. Penn, R. Radick, T. Rimmele, H. Socas-Navarro, and K. Streander, “Site testing for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62671T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209-224(1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-C. Fontanella, “Wavefront sensing from extended sources,” in NSO/SP Summer Workshop Series (Real Time and Post Facto Solar Image Correction), No. 13, R.Raddick, ed. (National Solar Observatory, 1992), pp. 124-128.

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics: conventional and multi-conjugate,” Proceedings of the 2005 AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2005), p. 62723W.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diffraction-limited, noise-free PSF shifted according to the average wavefront gradient in the subaperture, plotted on a logarithmic scale. (b) On-axis PSF, plotted on a logarithmic scale, used in the convolution to produce the isoplanatic image ( r 0 = 7 cm ). Differences from (a) arise from higher-order aberrations. (c) Hartmann–Shack image of the solar granulation in a WFS subaperture in the isoplanatic case. (d) Example for an off-axis PSF. The viewing angle is 13   arc  sec with respect to (b). (e) Same as (c) for the anisoplanatic case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shifts derived from the position of the subaperture PSFs using a polynomial fit of second order to the peak (black) and the PSF’s COG (gray) versus reference shifts as derived from the average wavefront gradient in the subaperture using Eq. (1). Left: r 0 = 7 cm , subaperture 7 cm , pixel sampling 0.5   arc  sec . Right: r 0 = 7     cm , subaperture 7 cm , pixel sampling 0.9   arc  sec .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shifts derived from the position of the cross correlation functions of the PSFs using a polynomial fit of second order to the peak (black) and the PSF’s COG (gray) versus reference shifts. Left: r 0 = 7 cm , subaperture 7 cm , pixel sampling 0.5   arc  sec . Right: r 0 = 7 cm , subaperture 7 cm , pixel sampling 0.9   arc  sec .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement errors to be expected when using (left) the simple polynomial fit and (right) the COG algorithm on the cross-correlation peaks, r 0 = 7 cm . When the subimage is undersampled with the WFS camera, this algorithm can lead to significant systematic measurement errors for nonintegral pixel shifts. The situation is slightly better for r 0 = 12 cm because of the better defined cross-correlation functions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot similar to Fig. 3 but for two different sets of reference pixels. The shifts derived from the polynomial fit algorithm applied to the cross-correlation peaks of the isoplanatic (gray) and anisoplanatic images (black) are shown. Anisoplanatic images were computed by using phase aberrations only. Left panels: ground truth shifts, Eq. (1), as abscissa. Right panels: as abscissa, reference shifts derived from the cross-correlations of images convolved with the shifted, diffraction-limited, noise-free PSFs. Top: r 0 = 7 cm , subaperture 7 cm , pixel sampling 0.5   arc  sec . Bottom: r 0 = 7 cm , subaperture 7 cm , pixel sampling 0.9   arc  sec .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement error to be expected from isoplanatic (left) and anisoplanatic atmospheric turbulence (middle) in the case of r 0 = 7 cm . The additional measurement error due to anisoplanatism, the difference between the left and the middle panel, is displayed in the right panel.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of the simulation for r 0 = 7 cm (top) and r 0 = 12 cm (bottom). Isoplanatic conditions are presented by the graphs on the left, anisoplantic conditions by the graphs on the right. In these graphs, the simulated WFS measurement error was calculated without scintillation anisoplanatism included. The dashed curve indicates Nyquist (critical) sampling.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 7 with scintillation anisoplanatism included.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of the simulation for r 0 = 7 cm using an image of a pore as extended source in the WFS. Isoplanatic conditions are presented by the graphs on the left, anisoplantic conditions by the graphs on the right. In these graphs, the simulated WFS measurement error was calculated without scintillation anisoplanatism included.

Equations (2)

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d s = 2 λ 2 π 1 ss × ps × ϕ .
σ = 1 N 1 i = 0 N ( y i - ( a x i + b ) ) 2 ,

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