Abstract

This study presents and demonstrates an approach for determining the surface tilt angles of parallel-aligned liquid crystal cells. The relationships between the incident angles and the corresponding phase retardations in the splay and the bend configurations are analyzed. The equations for the surface tilt angles are derived accordingly, and their accuracy is discussed. This method does not require knowledge of the cell thickness and is easily applied to assembled pi-cells.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Mori and P. Bos, “Optical performance of the π cell compensated with a negative-birefringence film and an A-plate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 2837-2844 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. G. Walton and M. J. Towler, “On the response speed of pi-cells,” Liq. Cryst. 27, 1329-1335 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. T. Wu and A. M. Lackner, “Mylar-film-compensated π and parallel-aligned liquid crystal cells for direct-view and projection displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2047-2049 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “The influence of flow on symmetric and asymmetric splay state relaxations,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1273-1283 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “Symmetric H state lifetime in splayed nematic liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B.-R. Yang, S. J. Elston, P. Raynes, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Investigation of the transient symmetric H state in a pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. S.-Y. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. H. Kim and L.-C. Chien, “Electro-optical characteristics and morphology of a bend nematic liquid crystal device having templated polymer fibrils,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7643-7647(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T.-J. Chen, C.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, and C.-H. Sun, “Electrooptical characteristics of liquid crystal π-cells sustained by aligned polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4203-4208 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Critical voltage of π-cell liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5810-5811(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Two-coefficient Cauchy model for low birefringence liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 170-174 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

B.-R. Yang, S. J. Elston, P. Raynes, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Investigation of the transient symmetric H state in a pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Chen, C.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, and C.-H. Sun, “Electrooptical characteristics of liquid crystal π-cells sustained by aligned polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4203-4208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Critical voltage of π-cell liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5810-5811(2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S.-Y. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “Symmetric H state lifetime in splayed nematic liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “The influence of flow on symmetric and asymmetric splay state relaxations,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1273-1283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Two-coefficient Cauchy model for low birefringence liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 170-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim and L.-C. Chien, “Electro-optical characteristics and morphology of a bend nematic liquid crystal device having templated polymer fibrils,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7643-7647(2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. G. Walton and M. J. Towler, “On the response speed of pi-cells,” Liq. Cryst. 27, 1329-1335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Mori and P. Bos, “Optical performance of the π cell compensated with a negative-birefringence film and an A-plate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 2837-2844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. T. Wu and A. M. Lackner, “Mylar-film-compensated π and parallel-aligned liquid crystal cells for direct-view and projection displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2047-2049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P.

H. Mori and P. Bos, “Optical performance of the π cell compensated with a negative-birefringence film and an A-plate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 2837-2844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brimicombe, P. D.

P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “Symmetric H state lifetime in splayed nematic liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “The influence of flow on symmetric and asymmetric splay state relaxations,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1273-1283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

T.-J. Chen, C.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, and C.-H. Sun, “Electrooptical characteristics of liquid crystal π-cells sustained by aligned polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4203-4208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.-J.

T.-J. Chen, C.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, and C.-H. Sun, “Electrooptical characteristics of liquid crystal π-cells sustained by aligned polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4203-4208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.-C.

S. H. Kim and L.-C. Chien, “Electro-optical characteristics and morphology of a bend nematic liquid crystal device having templated polymer fibrils,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7643-7647(2004).
[CrossRef]

Elston, S. J.

B.-R. Yang, S. J. Elston, P. Raynes, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Investigation of the transient symmetric H state in a pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guan, R.

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. H.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji Choi, C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jo, S. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim and L.-C. Chien, “Electro-optical characteristics and morphology of a bend nematic liquid crystal device having templated polymer fibrils,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7643-7647(2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koehler-Beran, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-L.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

F. S.-Y. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung Jo, M.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lackner, A. M.

S. T. Wu and A. M. Lackner, “Mylar-film-compensated π and parallel-aligned liquid crystal cells for direct-view and projection displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2047-2049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Two-coefficient Cauchy model for low birefringence liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 170-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Critical voltage of π-cell liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5810-5811(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Critical voltage of π-cell liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5810-5811(2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

H. Mori and P. Bos, “Optical performance of the π cell compensated with a negative-birefringence film and an A-plate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 2837-2844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nehring, J.

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raynes, E. P.

P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “Symmetric H state lifetime in splayed nematic liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Brimicombe and E. P. Raynes, “The influence of flow on symmetric and asymmetric splay state relaxations,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1273-1283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raynes, P.

B.-R. Yang, S. J. Elston, P. Raynes, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Investigation of the transient symmetric H state in a pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. Ji Choi, M. Kyoung Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, “No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scheffer, T. J.

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

B.-R. Yang, S. J. Elston, P. Raynes, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Investigation of the transient symmetric H state in a pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-H.

T.-J. Chen, C.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, and C.-H. Sun, “Electrooptical characteristics of liquid crystal π-cells sustained by aligned polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4203-4208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Critical voltage of π-cell liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5810-5811(2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Towler, M. J.

H. G. Walton and M. J. Towler, “On the response speed of pi-cells,” Liq. Cryst. 27, 1329-1335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, O. K.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walton, H. G.

H. G. Walton and M. J. Towler, “On the response speed of pi-cells,” Liq. Cryst. 27, 1329-1335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-J.

T.-J. Chen, C.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, and C.-H. Sun, “Electrooptical characteristics of liquid crystal π-cells sustained by aligned polymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4203-4208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu and A. M. Lackner, “Mylar-film-compensated π and parallel-aligned liquid crystal cells for direct-view and projection displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2047-2049 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Li and S.-T. Wu, “Two-coefficient Cauchy model for low birefringence liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 170-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F. C.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.-R.

B.-R. Yang, S. J. Elston, P. Raynes, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Investigation of the transient symmetric H state in a pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, F. S.

F. S. Yeung, Y. W. Li, and H.-S. Kwok, “Pi-cell liquid crystal displays at arbitrary pretilt angles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910(2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, F. S.-Y.

F. S.-Y. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Guan, “Pretilt angle effects on critical voltage and dynamic response of pi cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, H. Ma, Z. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Critical voltage of π-cell liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5810-5811(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, “Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Director configurations of the splay (left) and bend (right) states in the parallel-aligned LC cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase retardation curves as functions of incident angle in (a) splay and (b) bend states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for measuring phase retardation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and fitted phase retardation as functions of incident angle for a test pi-cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Deviations of calculated surface tilt angles in the (a) splay and (b) bend configurations.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Cell and Liquid Crystal Material Parameters Used in the Simulation

Equations (14)

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Γ ( ψ , α ) = 2 π t λ [ a 2 b 2 c 2 sin α cos α sin ψ + 1 c 1 a 2 b 2 c 2 sin 2 ψ 1 b 1 b 2 sin 2 ψ ] ,
Γ ± ( ψ , α ) = Γ ( ψ , α ) + Γ ( ψ , α ) = 4 π t λ [ n e n o n o 2 cos 2 α + n e 2 sin 2 α n o 2 cos 2 α + n e 2 sin 2 α sin 2 ψ n o 2 sin 2 ψ ] .
Γ total ( ψ , α 0 ) = 0 d / 2 Γ ( ψ , α ± ) d z .
[ Γ total ( ψ , α 0 ) ] ψ = 0 ° = 2 π n o d λ + 4 π n e λ 0 d / 2 [ 1 ( n e 2 n o 2 n o 2 ) sin 2 ( 2 α 0 z d ) ] 1 2 d z = 2 π d ( n e n o ) λ { 1 n e ( n e + n o ) 6 n o 2 α 0 2 + n e ( n e + n o ) 120 n o 2 [ 4 + 9 ( n e 2 n o 2 n o 2 ) ] α 0 4 + } ,
[ 2 Γ total ( ψ , α 0 ) ψ 2 ] ψ = 0 ° = 2 π d λ n o 4 π n e λ n o 2 0 d / 2 [ 1 + ( n e 2 n o 2 n o 2 ) sin 2 ( 2 α 0 z d ) ] 3 2 d z = 2 π d ( n e n o ) λ { 1 n o 2 + n e ( n e + n o ) 2 n o 4 α 0 2 n e ( n e + n o ) 40 n o 4 [ 4 + 15 ( n e 2 n o 2 n o 2 ) ] α 0 4 + } .
S splay , 2 [ 2 Γ ( ψ , α 0 ) total ψ 2 ] ( ψ = 0 ) , 2 [ Γ total ( ψ , α 0 ) ] ( ψ = 0 ) , 2 = 3 n e ( n e + n o ) α 0 , 2 2 6 n o 2 6 n o 4 n o 2 n e ( n e + n o ) α 0 , 2 2 ,
α 0 , 2 = 6 n o 2 ( 1 + n o 2 S splay , 2 ) n e ( n e + n o ) ( 3 + n o 2 S splay , 2 ) .
S splay , 4 [ 2 δ total ( ψ , α 0 ) ψ 2 ] ψ = 0 ° , 4 [ δ total ( ψ , α 0 ) ] ψ = 0 ° , 4 = 120 ( n e n o ) + 60 n e B α 0 , 4 2 3 n e B ( 4 + 15 B ) α 0 , 4 4 120 n o 2 ( n e n o ) 20 n e n o 2 B α 0 , 4 2 + n e n o 2 B ( 4 + 9 B ) α 0 , 4 4 ,
[ δ total ( ψ , θ 0 ) ] ψ = 0 ° = 2 π n o d λ ( n e 2 n o 2 n e 2 ) { 1 6 θ 0 2 1 120 [ 4 + 9 ( n o 2 n e 2 n e 2 ) ] θ 0 4 + } ,
[ 2 δ total ( ψ , θ 0 ) ψ 2 ] ψ = 0 ° = 2 π d λ n o n e 2 ( n e 2 n o 2 n e 2 ) { n e 2 n o 2 1 2 θ 0 2 + θ 0 4 40 [ 4 15 ( n e 2 n o 2 n e 2 ) ] + } ,
S bend , 2 [ 2 δ total ( ψ , θ 0 ) ψ 2 ] ψ = 0 ° , 2 [ δ total ( ψ , θ 0 ) ] ψ = 0 ° , 2 = 6 n o 2 θ 0 , 2 2 3 n e 2 ,
θ 0 , 2 = π 2 α 0 , 2 1 n o 1 2 n e 2 + 1 6 S bend , 2 ,
S bend , 4 [ 2 δ total ( ψ , θ 0 ) ψ 2 ] ψ = 0 ° , 4 [ δ total ( ψ , θ 0 ) ] ψ = 0 ° , 4 = 120 n e 2 + 60 n o 2 θ 0 , 4 2 3 n o 2 θ 0 , 4 4 [ 4 15 ( n e 2 n o 2 n e 2 ) ] 20 n o 2 n e 2 θ 0 , 4 2 + n o 2 n e 2 [ 4 9 ( n e 2 n o 2 n e 2 ) ] θ 0 , 4 4 .
f ( ψ ) = a ψ 6 + b ψ 5 + c ψ 4 + d ψ 3 + e ψ 2 + f ψ + g .

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