Abstract

A 2μm wavelength, 90mJ, 5Hz pulsed Ho laser is described with wavelength control to precisely tune and lock the wavelength at a desired offset up to 2.9GHz from the center of a CO2 absorption line. Once detuned from the line center the laser wavelength is actively locked to keep the wavelength within 1.9MHz standard deviation about the setpoint. This wavelength control allows optimization of the optical depth for a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The laser transmitter has been coupled with a coherent heterodyne receiver for measurements of CO2 concentration using aerosol backscatter; wind and aerosols are also measured with the same lidar and provide useful additional information on atmospheric structure. Range-resolved CO2 measurements were made with <2.4% standard deviation using 500m range bins and 6.7min (1000pulse pairs) integration time. Measurement of a horizontal column showed a precision of the CO2 concentration to <0.7% standard deviation using a 30min (4500pulse pairs) integration time, and comparison with a collocated in situ sensor showed the DIAL to measure the same trend of a diurnal variation and to detect shorter time scale CO2 perturbations. For vertical column measurements the lidar was setup at the WLEF tall tower site in Wisconsin to provide meteorological profiles and to compare the DIAL measurements with the in situ sensors distributed on the tower up to 396m height. Assuming the DIAL column measurement extending from 153m altitude to 1353m altitude should agree with the tower in situ sensor at 396m altitude, there was a 7.9ppm rms difference between the DIAL and the in situ sensor using a 30min rolling average on the DIAL measurement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. K. J. Davis, P. S. Bakwin, C. Yi, B. W. Berger, C. Zhao, R. M. Teclaw, and J. G. Isebrands, “The annual cycles of CO2 and H2O exchange over a northern mixed forest as observed from a very tall tower,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 9, 1278-1293 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, F. Amzajerdian, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “High-energy 2 μm doppler lidar for wind measurements,” Opt. Eng. 46, 116201(2007).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, T. L. Mack, M. N. Abedin, S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and U. N. Singh, “Infrared phototransistor validation for atmospheric remote sensing application using the Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48, 086001(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

J. Yu, A. Braud, and M. Petros, “600 mJ double-pulsed 2-micron laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 540-542 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies and D. M. Tratt, “Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6569-6577 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Davis, P. S. Bakwin, C. Yi, B. W. Berger, C. Zhao, R. M. Teclaw, and J. G. Isebrands, “The annual cycles of CO2 and H2O exchange over a northern mixed forest as observed from a very tall tower,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 9, 1278-1293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

B. W. Berger, K. J. Davis, C. Yi, P. S. Bakwin, and C. L. Zhao, “Long-term carbon dioxide fluxes from a very tall tower in a northern forest: flux measurement methodology,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 529-542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

M. Mitsuhara, M. Ogasawara, M. Oishi, H. Sugiura, and K. Kasaya, “2.05-μm wavelength InGaAs-InGaAs distributed-feedback multiquantum-well lasers with 10 mW output power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 33-35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, B. E. Anderson, T. J. Conway, G. W. Sachse, J. E. Collins Jr., D. R. Blake, and D. J. Westberg, “Airborne observations of the tropospheric CO2 distribution and its controlling factors over the South Pacific basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5663-5676 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Glob. Chang. Biol. (1)

K. J. Davis, P. S. Bakwin, C. Yi, B. W. Berger, C. Zhao, R. M. Teclaw, and J. G. Isebrands, “The annual cycles of CO2 and H2O exchange over a northern mixed forest as observed from a very tall tower,” Glob. Chang. Biol. 9, 1278-1293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Mitsuhara, M. Ogasawara, M. Oishi, H. Sugiura, and K. Kasaya, “2.05-μm wavelength InGaAs-InGaAs distributed-feedback multiquantum-well lasers with 10 mW output power,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 33-35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (1)

B. W. Berger, K. J. Davis, C. Yi, P. S. Bakwin, and C. L. Zhao, “Long-term carbon dioxide fluxes from a very tall tower in a northern forest: flux measurement methodology,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 529-542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

S. A. Vay, B. E. Anderson, T. J. Conway, G. W. Sachse, J. E. Collins Jr., D. R. Blake, and D. J. Westberg, “Airborne observations of the tropospheric CO2 distribution and its controlling factors over the South Pacific basin,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5663-5676 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. Regalia-Jarlot, V. Zeninari, B. Parvitte, A. Grossel, X. Thomas, P. von der Heyden, and G. Durry, “A complete study of the line intensities of four bands of CO2 around 1.6 and 2.0 μm: a comparison between Fourier transform and diode laser measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 325-335 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, T. L. Mack, M. N. Abedin, S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, and U. N. Singh, “Infrared phototransistor validation for atmospheric remote sensing application using the Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48, 086001(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, F. Amzajerdian, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “High-energy 2 μm doppler lidar for wind measurements,” Opt. Eng. 46, 116201(2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (8)

C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, and D. M. D'Epagnier, “Tunable highly-stable master/local oscillator laser for coherent lidar applications,” in Proceedings of Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technologies and Applications Conference, Mt. Hood, Oregon, 28 June 1999 (Universities Space Research Associations, Huntsville, Ala., 1999), pp. 115-118.

M. W. Phillips, J. Ranson, G. D. Spiers, and R. T. Menzies, “Development of a coherent laser transceiver for the NASA CO2 laser absorption spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Francisco, Calif.

Y. Bai, J. Yu, M. Petros, P. Petzar, B. Trieu, H. Lee, and U. Singh, “Highly efficient Q-switched Ho:YLF laser pumped by Tm:fiber laser,” in Proceedings of 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Md. , paper CTuN5.

Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (National Academies Press, 2007).

S. Ismail, G. Koch, N. Abedin, T. Refaat, M. Rubio, K. Davis, C. Miller, S. Vay, and U. Singh, “Development of a ground-based 2-micron differential absorption lidar system to profile tropospheric CO2,” in NASA Earth Science Technology Conference 2006, paper B9P3.

A. S. Moore, K. E. Brown, W. M. Hall, J. C. Barnes, W. C. Edwards, L. B. Petway, A. D. Little, W. S. Luck, I. W. Jones, C. W. Antill, E. V. Browell, and S. Ismail, “Development of the lidar atmospheric sensing experiment (LASE). An advanced airborne DIAL instrument,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, and U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 281-288.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2-μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” under review J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (in press).

J. Y. Beyon and G. J. Koch, “Energy estimation technique for differential absorption lidar under minimum mean square error criteria,” manuscript to be submitted to Opt. Eng.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the lidar. Solid curves represent fiber optic paths. Dashed curves are electronic connections. Acronyms include AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; CW, continuous wave; and PZT, piezoelectric translator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength settings of CW lasers superimposed on a hitran database simulation of transmission over a 1 km horizontal path at standard temperature and pressure. The side-line laser is shown here at three wavelength settings used in creating the data of Figs. 4, 5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of offset locking between centerline and side-line lasers. For comparison the locking electronics were also disengaged and the side-line laser was left to drift; a drift of tens of megahertz is typical over a 1 h long time span. The discontinuous jumps in the drifting laser are attributed to mechanical perturbations in the laboratory environment such as closing a door.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Backscatter signal power at four wavelengths: off-line and three side-line wavelengths at different offsets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical depth for three wavelength offsets.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Line-of-sight wind speed (top) and backscatter signal power (bottom) on the morning of 23 March 2007. Off-line pulses are taken from the DIAL data record and grouped into 20 pulse sets for processing here. One vertical stripe here thus represents an integration time of 8 s .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

DIAL results (blue) compared to in situ sensor (green) of 23 March 2007 from Hampton, Virginia. The DIAL beam is pointing horizontally for a column measurement at the same altitude as the in situ sensor. The in situ sensor is an infrared gas analyzer that draws in a sample of air to test; it provides a measurement of CO 2 concentration at 1 s intervals. The sharp peaks in the in situ measurement are caused by CO 2 -rich pockets of air traveling through the test site. The DIAL results in blue are shown using a 30 min rolling average; those in red are a 6.7 min integration. The DIAL shows both excellent performance in accuracy and precision. Both sensors show an approximate rise of 8 ppm before sunrise, followed by an 10 ppm decline. The short term peaks between the two sensors cannot be strictly compared, because the two sensors are probing different volumes of air. However, the DIAL is picking out short term variations. The DIAL’s precision in these measurements is calculated at < 0.7 % .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

In situ CO 2 measurements of 13–14 June 2007 at the WLEF tower. During nighttime hours soil respiration releases CO 2 that becomes trapped in the nocturnal boundary layer. As the Sun rises the trapped CO 2 is released to higher altitudes by convective mixing, and photosynthetic activity reduces the CO 2 concentration. The sensor at 396 m altitude shows little variation throughout this time period, suggesting that the DIAL should also measure little variation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

DIAL and in situ measurements of 13–14 June 2007 at the WLEF tower site. The in situ sensor is at 396 m altitude, the highest sensor from Fig. 8. The DIAL measurements are over a vertical column extending from 153 to 1353 m altitude.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Vertical backscatter and wind measurements derived from off-line pulses during DIAL measurements. Three times of day are represented: (a) 6:53 to 8:11 p.m., (b) 2:00 to 3:18 a.m., and (c) 10:36 to 11:54 a.m. While the integration time for a DIAL measurement was 2 min , the vertical wind measurements have been separated into 8 s long integration periods to better resolve vertical wind features. The top panel of each set is the vertical wind; the lower plot is backscatter signal energy. Vertical motion can be seen to be moderate (a) in the evening hours, (b) dissipating in the early morning, and (c) very strong in late morning. The trend in aerosol density can also be seen with a minimum during the early morning hours.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Wind profile sampled every half hour on 13–14 June 2007. The panels of data show, from top to bottom: (1) horizontal wind speed, (2) horizontal wind direction, (3) vertical wind speed (red upward, purple downward), and (4) backscatter signal power. The horizontal wind speed shows a nocturnal jet peaking at 10 m / s . A half hour sampling of vertical wind is too coarse to reveal thermals and wave action, hence the processing shown in Fig. 10. Variations of backscatter signal power show a decreasing trend in nighttime hours followed by an increase as daytime convection lifts aerosols.

Equations (2)

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τ ( R ) = 1 2 ln S off ( R ) S on ( R ) ,
n = 1 2 Δ σ ( R 2 R 1 ) ln [ S on ( R 1 ) S off ( R 2 ) S on ( R 2 ) S off ( R 1 ) ] ,

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