Abstract

Optical spectroscopy can provide useful diagnostic information about the morphological and biochemical changes related to the progression of precancer in epithelial tissue. As precancerous lesions develop, the optical properties of both the superficial epithelium and underlying stroma are altered; measuring spectral data as a function of depth has the potential to improve diagnostic performance. We describe a clinical spectroscopy system with a depth-sensitive, ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for noninvasive in vivo measurement of oral autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra. We report results of spectroscopic measurements from oral sites in normal volunteers and in patients with neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa; results indicate that the addition of depth selectivity can enhance the detection of optical changes associated with precancer.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using an angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034-2036 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
    [PubMed]

2006 (6)

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8, 146-154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Westra and D. Sidransky, “Fluorescence visualization in oral neoplasia: shedding light on an old problem,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6594-6597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 55, 74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using an angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, “Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design,” Opt. Lett. 28, 120-122 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 52, 195-215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121, 1287-1292(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

Anderson, D. W.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

Atkinson, E. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, R.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berean, K. W.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, C. S.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohle, R. M.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 55, 74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brookner, C.

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clayman, G.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cox, D.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, T. A.

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 52, 195-215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Veld, D. C. G.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhingra, J. K.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreyer, T.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duin, R. P. W.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durham, J. S.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 55, 74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fryen, A.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganeshappa, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, N.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A.

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8, 146-154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

Glanz, H.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grevers, G.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hittelman, W. N.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hong, W. K.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hussain, I. A.

Itzkan, I.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Kabani, S.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keefe, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, B.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Knight, B.

Kolli, V. R.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121, 1287-1292(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P. M.

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laver, N.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Leunig, A.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using an angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohmann, W.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lotan, R.

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C. E.

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, V.

Majumder, S. K.

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malpica, A.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marin, N.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshek-Stone, C. L.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matchette, L. S.

McMillan, K.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehlmann, M.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M. F.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munger, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neville, B. W.

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 52, 195-215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, S.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, J. L.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Papadimitrakopoulou, V.

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8, 146-154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkin, D. M.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 55, 74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrault, D. F.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, “Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design,” Opt. Lett. 28, 120-122 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisani, P.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 55, 74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poh, C. F.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priddy, R. W.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using an angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebeiz, E. E.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8, 146-154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

Rick, K.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosin, M. P.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, A. M.

Savage, H. E.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121, 1287-1292(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schantz, S. P.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121, 1287-1292(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

Shapshay, S. M.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheets, E. E.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D. M.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sidransky, D.

W. H. Westra and D. Sidransky, “Fluorescence visualization in oral neoplasia: shedding light on an old problem,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6594-6597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skurichina, M.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tae, K.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Tseng, O. L.

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrotsos, K. M.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westra, W. H.

W. H. Westra and D. Sidransky, “Fluorescence visualization in oral neoplasia: shedding light on an old problem,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6594-6597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, T. G. P.

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. M.

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witjes, M. J. H.

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, T. J.

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121, 1287-1292(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, E.

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Zeng, H.

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) (1)

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, and R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 117, 316-319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (3)

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251-1258 (1998).
[PubMed]

V. R. Kolli, H. E. Savage, T. J. Yao, and S. P. Schantz, “Native cellular fluorescence of neoplastic upper aerodigestive mucosa,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 121, 1287-1292(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault Jr., K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181-1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ca-Cancer J. Clin. (2)

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Global cancer statistics, 2002,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 55, 74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 52, 195-215 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma,” Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (3)

C. F. Poh, L. Zhang, D. W. Anderson, J. S. Durham, P. M. Williams, R. W. Priddy, K. W. Berean, S. Ng, O. L. Tseng, C. MacAulay, and M. P. Rosin, “Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6716-6722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Westra and D. Sidransky, “Fluorescence visualization in oral neoplasia: shedding light on an old problem,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6594-6597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tae, A. K. El-Naggar, E. Yoo, L. Feng, J. J. Lee, W. K. Hong, W. N. Hittelman, and D. M. Shin, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in head and neck tumorigenesis,” Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 2821-2828 (2000).
[PubMed]

Curr. Oncol. Rep. (1)

A. Gillenwater, V. Papadimitrakopoulou, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Oral premalignancy: new methods of detection and treatment,” Curr. Oncol. Rep. 8, 146-154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 940-950 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, T. G. P. Whitehead, H. Zeng, C. F. Poh, S. Ng, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, M. P. Rosin, and C. E. MacAulay, “Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol., B (1)

S. K. Majumder, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and P. K. Gupta, “Multi-class classification algorithm for optical diagnosis of oral cancer,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 85, 109-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (3)

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. G. de Veld, M. Skurichina, M. J. H. Witjes, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for oral oncology,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36, 356-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Betz, M. Mehlmann, K. Rick, H. Stepp, G. Grevers, R. Baumgartner, and A. Leunig, “Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of normal and malignant mucosa in patients with head and neck cancer,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 323-334 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Microanatomical and biochemical origins of normal and precancerous cervical autofluorescence using laser-scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. A. G. Ries, D. Melbert, M. Krapcho, A. Mariotto, B. A. Miller, E. J. Feuer, L. Clegg, M. J. Horner, N. Howlader, M. P. Eisner, M. Reichman, and B. K. Edwards, eds., “SEER cancer statistics review, 1975-2004,” National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md., based on November 2006 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2007, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2004/.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram and photograph of the clinical spectroscopy system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram and photograph of the clinical ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured depth response of the probe and comparison with simulations: (a) measured depth response in air; (b) measured depth response in water; (c) measured depth response in water versus Monte Carlo simulated depth response for nonscattering, moderately scattering, and highly scattering media (shallow channel only).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra measured from a single lateral tongue site in a normal volunteer using the shallow and deep channels of the probe: (a) fluorescence spectrum at 330 nm excitation; (b) fluorescence spectrum at 350 nm excitation; (c) fluorescence spectrum at 400 nm excitation; (d) diffuse reflectance spectrum under white light illumination. All spectra are shown on the same wavelength scale for comparison; the fluorescence spectrum at 400 nm excitation was collected with a 435 nm emission filter. The absorptions at 420, 540, and 580 nm in the deep channel reflectance spectrum are attributed to hemoglobin. The 420 nm hemoglobin absorption is evident in the reflectance spectra and also in several of the fluorescence spectra, particularly those collected using the deep channel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectra measured from three buccal sites in a single oral cancer patient at 350 nm excitation: (a) shallow channel, (b) deep channel, (c) shallow channel normalized to peak intensity value, and (d) deep channel normalized to peak intensity value. Histologic diagnoses of the three sites are, respectively, normal, moderate dysplasia, and well-differentiated invasive cancer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence spectra measured from three lateral tongue sites in a single oral cancer patient at 350 nm excitation: (a) shallow channel, (b) deep channel, (c) shallow channel normalized to peak intensity value, and (d) deep channel normalized to peak intensity value. Histologic diagnoses of the three sites are, respectively, normal, mild dysplasia, and moderately differentiated invasive cancer.

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