Abstract

We present the results of a study of optical scattering and backscattering of particulates for three coastal sites that represent a wide range of optical properties that are found in U.S. near-shore waters. The 6000 scattering and backscattering spectra collected for this study can be well approximated by a power-law function of wavelength. The power-law exponent for particulate scattering changes dramatically from site to site (and within each site) compared with particulate backscattering where all the spectra, except possibly the very clearest waters, cluster around a single wavelength power-law exponent of 0.94. The particulate backscattering-to-scattering ratio (the backscattering ratio) displays a wide range in wavelength dependence. This result is not consistent with scattering models that describe the bulk composition of water as a uniform mix of homogeneous spherical particles with a Junge-like power-law distribution over all particle sizes. Simultaneous particulate organic matter (POM) and particulate inorganic matter (PIM) measurements are available for some of our optical measurements, and site-averaged POM and PIM mass-specific cross sections for scattering and backscattering can be derived. Cross sections for organic and inorganic material differ at each site, and the relative contribution of organic and inorganic material to scattering and backscattering depends differently at each site on the relative amount of material that is present.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Rhea, G. M. Lamela, and C. O. Davis, “A profiling optics and water return system for validation and calibration of ocean color imagery,” Opt. Express 15, 2-11 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas,” Appl. Opt. 44, 126-135 (2005).
[PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010, doi:10.1029/2004JC002419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, S. B. Wozniak, and P. J. Flatau, “Optical properties of Asian mineral dust suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 749-755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and S. Craig, “Semi-empirical correction algorithm for AC-9 measurements in a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4369-4374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1378-1387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, B. D. Wolz, and A. M. Thralow, “Spectral analysis of bulk reflectance from coastal waters: deconvolution of diffuse spectra due to scattering and absorption by coastal water,” J. Coastal Res. 18, 352-361 (2002).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328-341 (2001).

1999 (3)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442-7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, Jr., R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721-5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070-7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689-1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. A. Gallie and P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103-118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328-341 (2001).

R. W. Gould, Jr., R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24955-24968 (1998).

Bergmann, T.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

Bidigare, R. R.

R. R. Bidigare and C. C. Trees, “HPLC phytoplankton pigments: sampling, laboratory methods, and quality assurance procedures,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, J. Mueller and G. Fargion, eds., NASA Tech. Memo2000-209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 154-161.

Bissett, P.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjørnland, T.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, S. M.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, J.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
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C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
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G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bouteiller, A. Le

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
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V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1378-1387 (2003).
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A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010, doi:10.1029/2004JC002419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. L.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
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R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Carder, K. L.

Chami, M.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
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G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
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M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
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A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010, doi:10.1029/2004JC002419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

Craig, S.

Cunningham, A.

Davis, C. O.

Dekker, A. G.

V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1378-1387 (2003).
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G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
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H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
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H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
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Downes, T. V.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
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C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
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Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
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D. Stramski, S. B. Wozniak, and P. J. Flatau, “Optical properties of Asian mineral dust suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 749-755 (2004).
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M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
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E. A. Gallie and P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103-118 (1992).
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S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689-1703 (1994).
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M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, S. M.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
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R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328-341 (2001).

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O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gurganus, E. A.

Haidvogel, D. B.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hakvoort, J. H. M.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
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Hapter, R.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

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Houghton, W. M.

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S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
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R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Kaczmarek, S.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
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D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kohut, J.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kondratyev, K. Y.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G. K.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, G. M.

Landry, M. R.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.-G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Llewellyn, C. A.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mantoura, R. F. C.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689-1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martinolich, P. M.

Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
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McKee, D.

Mériaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
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Mobley, C. D.

Moline, M.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moline, M. A.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
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S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689-1703 (1994).
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A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielson, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1-24.

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Moulin, C.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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E. A. Gallie and P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103-118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neveux, J.

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
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M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oubelkheir, K.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010, doi:10.1029/2004JC002419 (2004).
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Peacock, T. G.

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
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Platt, T.

Poole, L. R.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pozdnyakov, D. V.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Ras, J.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010, doi:10.1029/2004JC002419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Repeta, D.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

Rick, H. J.

R. H. Stavn and H. J. Rick, “Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and the water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: coastal and estuarine waters,” Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. (submitted).

Sathyendranath, S.

Schofield, O.

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O. M.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O. M. E.

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stavn, R. H.

R. H. Stavn and H. J. Rick, “Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and the water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: coastal and estuarine waters,” Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. (submitted).

Steward, R. G.

Ston, J.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

Stramska, M.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, S. B. Wozniak, and P. J. Flatau, “Optical properties of Asian mineral dust suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 749-755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Sydor, M.

M. Sydor, B. D. Wolz, and A. M. Thralow, “Spectral analysis of bulk reflectance from coastal waters: deconvolution of diffuse spectra due to scattering and absorption by coastal water,” J. Coastal Res. 18, 352-361 (2002).

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328-341 (2001).

Thralow, A. M.

M. Sydor, B. D. Wolz, and A. M. Thralow, “Spectral analysis of bulk reflectance from coastal waters: deconvolution of diffuse spectra due to scattering and absorption by coastal water,” J. Coastal Res. 18, 352-361 (2002).

Trees, C. C.

R. R. Bidigare and C. C. Trees, “HPLC phytoplankton pigments: sampling, laboratory methods, and quality assurance procedures,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, J. Mueller and G. Fargion, eds., NASA Tech. Memo2000-209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 154-161.

Twardowski, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Usry, J. W.

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welschmeyer, N.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Whitlock, C. H.

Whitmire, A. L.

Witte, W. G.

Wolz, B. D.

M. Sydor, B. D. Wolz, and A. M. Thralow, “Spectral analysis of bulk reflectance from coastal waters: deconvolution of diffuse spectra due to scattering and absorption by coastal water,” J. Coastal Res. 18, 352-361 (2002).

Wozniak, S. B.

D. Stramski, S. B. Wozniak, and P. J. Flatau, “Optical properties of Asian mineral dust suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 749-755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S. W.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24955-24968 (1998).

Zimmerman, R. C.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

C. H. Whitlock, L. R. Poole, J. W. Usry, W. M. Houghton, W. G. Witte, W. D. Morris, and E. A. Gurganus, “Comparison of reflectance with backscatter and absorption parameters for turbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 517-522 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721-5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070-7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442-7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, Jr., R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and S. Craig, “Semi-empirical correction algorithm for AC-9 measurements in a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4369-4374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas,” Appl. Opt. 44, 126-135 (2005).
[PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. (1)

R. H. Stavn and H. J. Rick, “Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and the water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: coastal and estuarine waters,” Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. (submitted).

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (1)

O. Schofield, T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J. F. Grassle, D. B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “The Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory: an integrated coastal observatory,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 27, 146-154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1378-1387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Coastal Res. (2)

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and M. Sydor, “Absorption, scattering, and remote-sensing reflectance relationships in coastal waters: testing a new inversion algorithm,” J. Coastal Res. 17, 328-341 (2001).

M. Sydor, B. D. Wolz, and A. M. Thralow, “Spectral analysis of bulk reflectance from coastal waters: deconvolution of diffuse spectra due to scattering and absorption by coastal water,” J. Coastal Res. 18, 352-361 (2002).

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi:10.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C11020, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, O. M. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, “Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C9), 3133, doi:10.1029/2001JC001018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, doi:10.1029/2001JC001195 (2003).

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24955-24968 (1998).

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C11010, doi:10.1029/2004JC002419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dupouy, H. Loisel, J. Neveux, S. L. Brown, C. Moulin, J. Blanchot, A. Le Bouteiller, and M. R. Landry, “Microbial absorption and backscattering coefficients from in situ and POLDER satellite data during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase in the equatorial Pacific (180°),” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C12), 8138, doi:10.1029/2001JC001298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moline, S. M. Blackwell, R. Chant, M. J. Oliver, T. Bergmann, S. Glenn, and O. M. E. Schofield, “Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12S05, doi:10.1029/2003JC001985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (6)

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444-455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689-1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, “Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 756-767 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, S. B. Wozniak, and P. J. Flatau, “Optical properties of Asian mineral dust suspended in seawater,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 749-755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Chem. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjørnland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, “Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (2)

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

E. A. Gallie and P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103-118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. R. Bidigare and C. C. Trees, “HPLC phytoplankton pigments: sampling, laboratory methods, and quality assurance procedures,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, J. Mueller and G. Fargion, eds., NASA Tech. Memo2000-209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 154-161.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielson, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1-24.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Result of fitting all the ac-9 total particulate scattering ( b p ) spectra to a power-law function of wavelength. Plotted is the best-fit amplitude at 550   nm and the power-law exponent for each fit. The x-axis values are plotted on a logarithmic scale. Because of the high density of points, uncertainties are shown only for the R∕V Ocean Color measurements and other representative data points.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Average fractional difference and standard deviation of individual particulate scattering spectra from a power-law function of wavelength for each major data group. For some data points the standard deviation is of the order of the size of the data symbol or smaller. Fractional differences are typically less than 10% at each ac-9 wavelength. A small wavelength shift has been applied to the data to avoid overlap.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Result of fitting all the HS-6 particulate backscattering ( b b p ) spectra to a power-law function of wavelength. Plotted is the best-fit amplitude at 550   nm and the power-law exponent for each fit. The x-axis values are plotted on a logarithmic scale. Because of the high density of points, uncertainties are shown only for the R∕V Ocean Color measurements and other representative data points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Average fractional difference and standard deviation of individual particulate backscattering spectra from a power-law function of wavelength for each major data group. Fractional differences are typically less than 10% at each HS-6 wavelength although much larger departures are evident for the Monterey Bay averages at some wavelengths. A small wavelength shift has been applied to the data to avoid overlap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Particulate backscattering ratio spectral exponent plotted as a function of backscattering ratio at 550   nm . Because of the high density of points, uncertainties are shown only for the R∕V Ocean Color measurements and other representative data points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Particulate backscattering ratio at 550   nm plotted as a function of the organic fraction of material. There is no correlation in the data when treated either as a group or from individual sites.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Site-averaged particulate scattering mass-specific cross sections for POM and PIM for each site. For some data points the uncertainty is of the order of the size of the data symbol or smaller. A small wavelength shift has been applied to the data to avoid overlap. The POM cross section at LEO-15 is high when compared with theoretical calculations and values reported in the literature. Given the uncertainty in filter pad correction for this site, the LEO-15 results should be treated with caution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Site-averaged particulate backscattering mass-specific cross sections for POM and PIM for each site. A small wavelength shift has been applied to the data to avoid overlap. The LEO-15 results should be treated with caution.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Site-averaged particulate absorption mass-specific cross sections for POM and PIM for each site. For some data points the uncertainty is of the order of the size of the data symbol or smaller. A small wavelength shift has been applied to the data to avoid overlap. The LEO-15 results should be treated with caution.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Site-Averaged Simultaneous Optical and Physical Properties a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( λ ) = f 550 ( λ / 550 ) γ .
fractional   difference ( λ ) = f o bs ( λ ) f pred ( λ ) f pred ( λ ) ,
b ˜ b p ( λ ) = b b p ( λ ) b p ( λ ) = b ˜ b p ( 550 ) ( λ / 550 ) γ ,
b p = POM σ b p ,POM + PIM σ b p ,PIM ,

Metrics