Abstract

Erbium (Er)- and Ytterbium (Yb)-codoped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals were grown by top seeded solution growth-slow cooling method for several different doping concentrations. Growth parameters have been optimized to obtain macrodefect-free single crystals. Er energy levels involved in the I413/2I415/2 were determined by 6  K polarized optical absorption. The maximum emission cross section for this electronic transition has been evaluated, being 2.85×1020cm2 for ENm at 1535  nm. Laser oscillation in the 1.5μm range was obtained by pumping the Yb ion at 980  nm and sensitizing Er. The maximum output power achieved was 152  mW, with 1.2% slope efficiency.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Amin, J. A. Aust, D. L. Veasey, and N. A. Sanford, "Dual wavelength, 980 nm-pumped, Er/Yb-codoped waveguide laser in Ti:LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 34, 456-458 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).
  5. P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlopensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunnina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
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  22. S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Brynolfsson, "Accurate lifetime measurements using confocal microscopy," M. S. thesis, TRITA-FYS 2006:80, ISSN 0280-316 (The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden 2007).
  25. S. Bjurshagen and R. Koch, "Modelling of energy-transfer upconversion and thermal effects in end-pumped quasi-three-level lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4753-4767 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, and V. Pasiskevicius, "Laser performance and thermal lensing in high-power diode pumped Yb:KGW with athermal orientation," Appl. Phys. B 83, 55-59 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (6)

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, and V. Pasiskevicius, "Laser performance and thermal lensing in high-power diode pumped Yb:KGW with athermal orientation," Appl. Phys. B 83, 55-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Bjurshagen and R. Koch, "Modelling of energy-transfer upconversion and thermal effects in end-pumped quasi-three-level lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4753-4767 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Schweitzer, T. Jenses, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5," Opt. Commun. 118, 557-561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amin, J.

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, D. L. Veasey, and N. A. Sanford, "Dual wavelength, 980 nm-pumped, Er/Yb-codoped waveguide laser in Ti:LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 34, 456-458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aust, J. A.

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, D. L. Veasey, and N. A. Sanford, "Dual wavelength, 980 nm-pumped, Er/Yb-codoped waveguide laser in Ti:LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 34, 456-458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aznar, A.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa-García, O.

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bjurshagen, S.

Borel, C.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brynolfsson, P.

P. Brynolfsson, "Accurate lifetime measurements using confocal microscopy," M. S. thesis, TRITA-FYS 2006:80, ISSN 0280-316 (The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden 2007).

Burns, P.

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. A.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J.

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denker, B.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diáz-Torres, L. A.

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunnina, E. B.

Galagan, B.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galan, M.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galán, M.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldá, J.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldà, J.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Güell, F.

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, S.

Hellström, J. E.

S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, and V. Pasiskevicius, "Laser performance and thermal lensing in high-power diode pumped Yb:KGW with athermal orientation," Appl. Phys. B 83, 55-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweitzer, T. Jenses, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5," Opt. Commun. 118, 557-561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlopensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunnina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweitzer, T. Jenses, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5," Opt. Commun. 118, 557-561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jenses, T.

T. Schweitzer, T. Jenses, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5," Opt. Commun. 118, 557-561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, G.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kisel, V. E.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Koch, R.

Koporulina, E. V.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Kornienko, A. A.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kück, S.

I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).

Kuleshov, N. V.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlopensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunnina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Kurilchik, S. V.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlopensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunnina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leonyuk, N. I.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Li, C.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Z. C.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Liu, J.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lukasiewicz, T.

I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).

Maltsev, V. V.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Massons, J.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meneses-Nava, M. A.

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meva, L.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlopensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunnina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, and V. Pasiskevicius, "Laser performance and thermal lensing in high-power diode pumped Yb:KGW with athermal orientation," Appl. Phys. B 83, 55-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pilipenko, O. V.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Piper, J.

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podlopensky, A. V.

Pujol, M. C.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bjurshagen, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis inEr3+, Yb3+ doped double tungstates," Appl. Opt. 45, 4715-4725 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ran, D. G.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Rico, M.

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, D. L. Veasey, and N. A. Sanford, "Dual wavelength, 980 nm-pumped, Er/Yb-codoped waveguide laser in Ti:LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 34, 456-458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, T.

T. Schweitzer, T. Jenses, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5," Opt. Commun. 118, 557-561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, O.

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sokolska, I.

I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R. M.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Souriau, J. C.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, D. S.

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Surinac, S.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sverchkov, S.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, N. A.

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

Veasey, D. L.

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, D. L. Veasey, and N. A. Sanford, "Dual wavelength, 980 nm-pumped, Er/Yb-codoped waveguide laser in Ti:LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 34, 456-458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vega-Durán, J. T.

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Viera, G.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voronina, I.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Wang, X.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Wyon, Ch.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H. R.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Yu, W.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Zaldo, C.

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, and V. Pasiskevicius, "Laser performance and thermal lensing in high-power diode pumped Yb:KGW with athermal orientation," Appl. Phys. B 83, 55-59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Sokolska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 andEr3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 μm," Appl. Phys. B 71, 893-896 (2000).

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a Co:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, "Cw laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Yu, X. Wang, D. G. Ran, Z. C. Ling, and H. R. Xia, "Anisotropic thermal properties of monoclinic Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061104 (2005).

J. T. Vega-Durán, O. Barbosa-García, L. A. Diáz-Torres, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and D. S. Sumida, "Effects of energy back transfer on the luminescence of Yb and Er ions in YAG," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2032-2034 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

A. Aznar, O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, "Liquid-phase epitaxy crystal growth of monoclinic KLu1−xYbx(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 layers," Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 1781-1787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, D. L. Veasey, and N. A. Sanford, "Dual wavelength, 980 nm-pumped, Er/Yb-codoped waveguide laser in Ti:LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 34, 456-458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for cw laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, M. Galán, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Erbium spectroscopy and 1.5 μm emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er,Yb single crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 759-770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Gavaldá, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation of Yb3+ in monoclinic KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1056-1059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, "Efficient 2 μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008-1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, "Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Burns, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "CW diode-pumped microlaser operation at 1.5-1.6 μm in Er,Yb:YCOB," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1677-1679 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitizing of Er3+ upconversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (2)

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinac, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Schweitzer, T. Jenses, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic properties and diode pumped 1.6 μm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5," Opt. Commun. 118, 557-561 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, C. Borel, and Ch. Wyon, "Room temperature cw laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+,Er3+ at 1.57 μm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped withEr3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, F. Güell, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and J. Massons, "Sensitization of Er3+ emission at 1.5 μm by Yb3+ in KYb(WO4)2 single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. A. Tolstik, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, O. V. Pilipenko, E. V. Koporulina, and N. I. Leonyuk, "Efficient Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser," in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2007 Technical Digest (The Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB23.

P. Brynolfsson, "Accurate lifetime measurements using confocal microscopy," M. S. thesis, TRITA-FYS 2006:80, ISSN 0280-316 (The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden 2007).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Photograph of (Er,Yb):KLuW single crystal grown by the TSSG-SC method and morphological squeme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Room temperature polarized optical absorption of F 2 7 / 2 2 F 5 / 2 ( Yb 3 + ) in Yb:KLuW and I 4 15 / 2 4 I 11 / 2 in Er:KLuW single crystals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Polarized optical absorption of I 4 15 / 2   4 I 13 / 2 ( Er 3 + ) spectra in the N m direction in (Er,Yb):KLuW single crystal at (a) room temperature and (b) low temperature (6 K).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Polarized low-temperature optical absorption of I 4 15 / 2 4 I 13 / 2 ( Er 3 + ) in the N m direction for (a) Er:KYbW, (b) Er:KGdW, and (c) (Er,Yb):KLuW. ∗ denotes the electronic transition from the I 4 15 / 2 ( 0 ) Stark sublevel, ° denotes the electronic transition from the I 4 15 / 2 ( 1 ) second Stark sublevel, and °′ denotes the electronic transition from the I 4 15 / 2 ( 2 ) third Stark sublevel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unpolarized emission spectra of (Er,Yb):KLuW for pumping at 940   nm at room temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Unpolarized emission spectra of (Er,Yb):KLuW for pumping at 940   nm at low temperature (10 K).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarized absorption and emission cross section of the electronic transition I 4 15 / 2 I 4 13 / 2 ( Er 3 + ) .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Polarized gain spectra in the N m and N p direction of (Er,Yb):KLuW for different inversion populations β.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fluorescence dynamics from Er ( 4 I 11 / 2 ) in Er:KLuW for different concentrations, [ Er ] = 0.5 % (solid curve), [ Er ] = 3 % (dashed curve), [ Er ] = 5 % (dashed–dotted curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Peak output power of pulsed diode-pumped (Er 1.5%, Yb 5%):KLuW laser with out-coupling T of 0.7% (circles), 2% (up triangles), and 3% (down triangles) versus absorbed peak power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) (Er,Yb):KLuW laser output power dependence on the absorbed pump power for T = 2 % output coupler. Position of pump focus optimized for every pump power (squares), pump focused in the middle of the crystal (circles), pump focused to the end of the crystal (triangles). Inset: optimum location of the pump focus as a function of absorbed pump power.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Er,Yb):KLuW laser output power as a function of the position of pump focus with respect to the input face of the crystal (squares). Absorbed pump power 4.9 W and output coupler T = 2 % . The average pump power was calculated using Eq. (1) as a function of the position of pump focus (solid curve).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Output power for (Er,Yb):KLuW laser with T = 2 % output coupler as a function of the absorption-weighted average intensity [Eq. (1)]. Pump focus position optimized for each pump power (squares), pump focus in the middle in the crystal (circles), and pump focus at the far end of the crystal (up triangles). Down triangles—dependence of the output power for pump power fixed at 4.9 W, but the pump focus position was changed as in Fig. 12.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Output power as a function of the absorbed pump power in the laser employing (Er 0.5%, Yb 5%):KYW for different output coupler transmissions: T = 0.3 % (squares), T = 0.7 % (circles), T = 2 % (up triangles), T = 3 % (down triangles).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Output power as a function of the absorbed pump power in the laser employing (Er 0.5%, Yb 2.5%):KYW for different output coupler transmissions: T = 0.3 % (squares), T = 0.7 % (circles), T = 2 % (up triangles), and T = 3 % (down triangles).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Details of Crystal Growth

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Table 2 Summary of the EPMA Results of the Analysis of (Er,Yb):KLuW

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Table 3 Energy Positions (in cm−1) of Er3+ Ground and First Excited State Manifolds

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Table 4 Summary of Laser Experiments with (Er,Yb):KLuW and (Er,Yb):KYW

Equations (1)

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w ¯ P 2 = 0 l w P 2 ( z ) exp ( α z ) d z 0 l exp ( α z ) d z ,

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