Abstract

It has been a common challenge to operate optical see-through head-mounted displays in well-lit environments due to the low image brightness and contrast compared with the direct view of a real-world scene. This problem is aggravated in the design of a see-through head-mounted projection display (HMPD) in which the projected light is split twice by a beam splitter and further attenuated greatly by a retroreflective screen. A polarizing head-mounted projection display (p-HMPD) design was recently proposed to enhance the overall flux transfer efficiency and thus increase the brightness and contrast of displayed images. Different from the conventional nonpolarizing HMPD designs, the light polarization states in the p-HMPD system are deliberately manipulated to maximize the flux transfer efficiency, which can potentially result in three times higher efficiency than that of a nonpolarizing HMPD. By measuring the Mueller matrices of the major elements in both a p-HMPD and a nonpolarizing HMPD, we characterize the polarization dependence of each element on incident angles and wavelengths, and also investigate the depolarization effect of the retroreflective screen. Based on these experimental results, we further examine the overall luminance efficiencies of the two types of systems and analyze how various aspects of display performances are affected by the angular and chromatic dependence of the polarization components.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (2)

R. Zhang and H. Hua, "Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays," Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua and C. Gao, "Design of a bright polarized head-mounted projection display," Appl. Opt. 46, 2600-2610 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

B. DeBoo, J. Sasian, and R. Chipman, "Depolarization of diffusely reflecting man-made objects," Appl. Opt. 44, 5434-5445 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chipman, "Depolarization index and the average degree of polarization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2490-2495 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultra-light and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, "Study of the imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays," Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Azuma, "A survey of augmented reality," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6, 355-385 (1997).

1994 (1)

1986 (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, "Depolarization and polarization indices of an optical system," Opt. Acta 33, 185-189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Opt. Acta (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, "Depolarization and polarization indices of an optical system," Opt. Acta 33, 185-189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (2)

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, "Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Azuma, "A survey of augmented reality," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6, 355-385 (1997).

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Zhang and H. Hua, "Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays," Proc. SPIE 6489, 64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, "Study of the imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays," Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

M. Stokes, M. Anderson, S. Chandrasekar, and R. Motta, "A standard default color space for the Internet--sRGB," http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB (1996).

Bolder Vision Optik, http://www.boldervision.com.

Axometrics, Inc., http://www.axometrics.com.

MOXTEK, Inc., http://www.moxtek.com.

D. P. Hansen, R. T. Perkins, and E. Gardner, "Broadband wire grid polarizing beamsplitter for use in the visible wavelength region," U.S. patent 6,243,199 (5 June 2001).

H. Hua and C. Gao, "A polarized head-mounted projective display," in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 32-35.
[PubMed]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 233-240.

H. Hua, C. Gao, F. Biocca, and J. P. Rolland, "An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2001 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 175-182.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, "Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology," in Proceedings of International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2003 (ISMAR, 2003), pp. 348-349.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 171-179.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, "SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).

J. P. Rolland and H. Hua, "Head-mounted display systems," in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R. B. Johnson and R. G. Driggers, eds. (Dekker, 2005), pp. 1-13.

R. Fisher, "Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same," U.S. patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).

J. Fergason, "Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image," U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, "Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display," in Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 1997 (IEEE, 1997), pp. 130-137.

D. Poizat and J. P. Rolland, "Use of retro-reflective sheets in optical system design," Tech. Rep. TR98-006 (University of Central Florida, 1998).

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, "A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest," in Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 1998 (IOS/Ohmsha, 1998), pp. 246-251.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, "Object-oriented displays: a new type of display systems--from immersive display to object-oriented displays," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE, 1999), pp. 1066-1069.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of HMPD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of a p-HMPD system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarimeter setup for polarization measurements of (a) transmittance of a retarder, (b) transmittance of a PBS or a BS, (c) reflectance of a PBS or a BS, and (d) retroreflectance of a retroreflective screen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Characterizing the PBS: (a) reflectance of s-polarized light and (b) transmittance of p-polarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Characterizing a BS: (a) and (b) reflectance and transmittance of s-polarized light, and (c) and (d) reflectance and transmittance of p-polarized light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Characterizing a retarder: (a) transmittance, (b) retardance, and (c) fast-axis direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Normalized Mueller matrix plot for the retroreflection of a retroreflective screen at the wavelength of 550   nm . The incident angle is from 28 ° to 28°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Depolarization index versus incident angles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Luminance efficiency of a p-HMPD and a nonpolarizing HMPD at the wavelength of: (a) 450   nm , (b) 550   nm , and (c) 650   nm . (d) Shows the ratio of the luminance efficiency of a p-HMPD to a HMPD.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uniformity and Image Contrast: HMPD versus p-HMPD

Tables Icon

Table 2 Colorimetric Characteristics: HMPD versus p-HMPD

Equations (12)

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  Φ I ( θ , λ , S ) = α w p 2 ( θ , λ , S ) r p -trans ( θ , λ , S ) r C -retro ( θ , λ , S ) × r s -refl ( θ , λ , S ) Φ I ( θ , λ , S ) ,
S Exiting = [ S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 ] = M · S Incident = [ m 00 m 01 m 02 m 03 m 10 m 11 m 12 m 13 m 20 m 21 m 22 m 23 m 30 m 31 m 32 m 33 ] · [ S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 ] .
M retro ( θ , λ ) = [ M BS-R ( , λ ) ] 1 M meas ( θ , λ ) * [ M BS-T ( , λ ) ] 1 ,
T s -PBS ( θ , λ ) = 1 2 ( m 00 m 01 m 10 + m 11 ) ,
T p -PBS ( θ , λ ) = 1 2 ( m 00 + m 01 + m 10 + m 11 ) ,
R s -PBS ( θ , λ ) = 1 2 ( m 00 m 01 m 10 + m 11 ) ,
R p -PBS ( θ , λ ) = 1 2 ( m 00 + m 01 + m 10 + m 11 ) ,
DEP = 1 [ i , j m i j 2 m 00 2 ] 1 / 2 3 m 00 .
M pHMPD ( θ , λ ) = M PBS-T ( θ , λ ) M retarder ( θ , λ ) M mirror M retro ( θ , λ ) M retarder ( θ , λ ) M PBS-R ( θ , λ ) ,
M mirror = [ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ] .
M HMPD ( θ , λ ) = M BS-T ( θ , λ ) M mirror M retro ( θ , λ ) M BS-R ( θ , λ ) .
Φ ( θ , λ ) = [ 1 , 0 , 0 , 0 ] M system ( θ , λ ) S Incident ,

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