Abstract

We present a new passive depth detection method for quasi-monochromatic and spatially incoherent objects. We utilize the wavefront discrimination properties of a volume holographic pupil combined with a measurement of the degree of coherence of the diffracted field. Depth detection is posed as the Bayesian hypothesis testing on the outcome of the coherence measurement. We present the analysis of our proposed optical system and experimental results confirming binary depth discrimination with high confidence for featureless objects.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  8. N. Joshi, W. Matusik, and S. Avidan, “Natural video matting using camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 779-786(2006).
  9. J. Ens and P. Lawrence, “An investigation of methods for determining depth from focus,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 97-108 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Liu, G. Barbastathis, and D. Psaltis, “Volume holographic hyperspectral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3581-3599 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Liu, D. Psaltis, and G. Barbastathis, “Real-time spectral imaging in three spatial dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 27, 854-856 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Sinha, W. Sun, T. Shih, and G. Barbastathis, “Volume holographic imaging in transmission geometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1533-1551 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Sun, K. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Hyper-spectral imaging with volume holographic lenses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CFP2.
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2006 (1)

N. Joshi, W. Matusik, and S. Avidan, “Natural video matting using camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 779-786(2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (5)

1996 (3)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J. Ens and P. Lawrence, “An investigation of methods for determining depth from focus,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 97-108 (1993).

1984 (2)

1938 (1)

F. Zernike, “The concept of degree of coherence and its applications to optical problems,” Physica 5, 785-795 (1938).

1934 (1)

P. H. V. Cittert, “Die wahrscheinliche Schwingungsverteilung in einer von einer Lichtquelle direkt oder mittels einer Linse beleuchteten Ebene,” Physica 1, 201-210 (1934).

Arimoto, H.

Avidan, S.

N. Joshi, W. Matusik, and S. Avidan, “Natural video matting using camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 779-786(2006).

Balberg, M.

Barbastathis, G.

W. Sun and G. Barbastathis, “Rainbow volume holographic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30, 976-978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, G. Barbastathis, and D. Psaltis, “Volume holographic hyperspectral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3581-3599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinha, W. Sun, T. Shih, and G. Barbastathis, “Volume holographic imaging in transmission geometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1533-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, D. Psaltis, and G. Barbastathis, “Real-time spectral imaging in three spatial dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 27, 854-856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Barbastathis and D. J. Brady, “Multidimensional tomographic imaging using volume holography,” Proc. IEEE 87, 2098-2120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Barbastathis, M. Balberg, and D. J. Brady, “Confocal microscopy with a volume holographic filter,” Opt. Lett. 24, 811-813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, K. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Hyper-spectral imaging with volume holographic lenses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CFP2.

G. Barbastathis, “The transfer function of volume holographic optical systems,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications, Springer Series in Optical Science, J. -P. Huignard and P. Günter, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 51-76.

Berger, J. O.

J. O. Berger, Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer-Verlag, 1985).

Blinn, J. F.

A. R. Smith and J. F. Blinn, “Blue screen matting,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 259-268.

Bouguet, J. Y.

J. Y. Bouguet and P. Perona, “3D photography using shadows in dual-space geometry,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 129-149(1999).

Brady, D. J.

Cathey, W. T.

Chaudhuri, S.

S. Chaudhuri and A. Rajagopalan, Depth from Defocus: a Real Aperture Imaging Approach (Springer, 1999).

Cittert, P. H. V.

P. H. V. Cittert, “Die wahrscheinliche Schwingungsverteilung in einer von einer Lichtquelle direkt oder mittels einer Linse beleuchteten Ebene,” Physica 1, 201-210 (1934).

Cracknell, A. P.

A. P. Cracknell and L. Hayes, Introduction to Remote Sensing (Taylor &Francis, 2007).

Curless, B.

B. Curless, “Overview of active vision techniques: SIGGRAPH 99 Course on 3D Photography” (1999), http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~seitz/course/SIGG00/slides/curless-active.pdf.

Dowski, E. R.

Ens, J.

J. Ens and P. Lawrence, “An investigation of methods for determining depth from focus,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 97-108 (1993).

Fellinger, D. F.

P. E. Vlahos, P. Vlahos, and D. F. Fellinger, “Automated encoded signal color image compositing,” U.S. Patent 4,589,013 (13 May 1986).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2005).

Hayes, L.

A. P. Cracknell and L. Hayes, Introduction to Remote Sensing (Taylor &Francis, 2007).

Horn, B. K. P.

B. K. P. Horn, Robot Vision (MIT Press, 1986).

Itoh, K.

Joshi, N.

N. Joshi, W. Matusik, and S. Avidan, “Natural video matting using camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 779-786(2006).

Lawrence, P.

J. Ens and P. Lawrence, “An investigation of methods for determining depth from focus,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 97-108 (1993).

Liu, W.

Marathay, A. S.

Marks, D. L.

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, and D. J. Brady, “Three-dimensional coherence imaging in the Fresnel domain,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1332-1342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, “Four-dimensional coherence sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, 2001).

Marr, D.

D. Marr and T. Poggio, “A theory of human stereo vision,” Artificial Intelligence Lab Publications, AI Memos AIM-451 (MIT, 1977), http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/6093.

Matusik, W.

N. Joshi, W. Matusik, and S. Avidan, “Natural video matting using camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 779-786(2006).

Perona, P.

J. Y. Bouguet and P. Perona, “3D photography using shadows in dual-space geometry,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 129-149(1999).

Poggio, T.

D. Marr and T. Poggio, “A theory of human stereo vision,” Artificial Intelligence Lab Publications, AI Memos AIM-451 (MIT, 1977), http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/6093.

Pollock, D. B.

Psaltis, D.

Rajagopalan, A.

S. Chaudhuri and A. Rajagopalan, Depth from Defocus: a Real Aperture Imaging Approach (Springer, 1999).

Rosen, J.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (Springer, 1997).

Shih, T.

Shotton, D. M.

C. J. R. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (Springer, 1997).

Sinha, A.

Smith, A. R.

A. R. Smith and J. F. Blinn, “Blue screen matting,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 259-268.

Stack, R. A.

Sudol, R.

Sun, W.

W. Sun and G. Barbastathis, “Rainbow volume holographic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30, 976-978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinha, W. Sun, T. Shih, and G. Barbastathis, “Volume holographic imaging in transmission geometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1533-1551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, K. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Hyper-spectral imaging with volume holographic lenses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CFP2.

Thompson, B. J.

Tian, K.

W. Sun, K. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Hyper-spectral imaging with volume holographic lenses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CFP2.

Vlahos, P.

P. Vlahos, “Comprehensive electronic compositing system,” U.S. Patent 4,625,231 (25 November 2 1986 ).

P. E. Vlahos, P. Vlahos, and D. F. Fellinger, “Automated encoded signal color image compositing,” U.S. Patent 4,589,013 (13 May 1986).

P. E. Vlahos, P. Vlahos, and D. F. Fellinger, “Automated encoded signal color image compositing,” U.S. Patent 4,589,013 (13 May 1986).

P. Vlahos, “Comprehensive electronic compositing system,” U.S. Patent 4,344,085 (10 August 1982 ).

P. Vlahos, “Encoded signal color image compositing,” U.S. Patent 4,409,611 (11 October 1983).

Wissmann, P.

P. Wissmann, “Simulation and optimization of active and passive holographic imaging systems for shape and surface metrology,” Diploma thesis (RWTH Aachen University2007).

Yariv, A.

Yoshimori, K.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “The concept of degree of coherence and its applications to optical problems,” Physica 5, 785-795 (1938).

ACM Trans. Graphics (1)

N. Joshi, W. Matusik, and S. Avidan, “Natural video matting using camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 779-786(2006).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

J. Ens and P. Lawrence, “An investigation of methods for determining depth from focus,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 97-108 (1993).

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

J. Y. Bouguet and P. Perona, “3D photography using shadows in dual-space geometry,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35, 129-149(1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Physica (2)

P. H. V. Cittert, “Die wahrscheinliche Schwingungsverteilung in einer von einer Lichtquelle direkt oder mittels einer Linse beleuchteten Ebene,” Physica 1, 201-210 (1934).

F. Zernike, “The concept of degree of coherence and its applications to optical problems,” Physica 5, 785-795 (1938).

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. Barbastathis and D. J. Brady, “Multidimensional tomographic imaging using volume holography,” Proc. IEEE 87, 2098-2120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

W. Sun, K. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Hyper-spectral imaging with volume holographic lenses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CFP2.

P. Wissmann, “Simulation and optimization of active and passive holographic imaging systems for shape and surface metrology,” Diploma thesis (RWTH Aachen University2007).

D. L. Marks, “Four-dimensional coherence sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, 2001).

A. R. Smith and J. F. Blinn, “Blue screen matting,” in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 259-268.

P. Vlahos, “Comprehensive electronic compositing system,” U.S. Patent 4,344,085 (10 August 1982 ).

P. Vlahos, “Encoded signal color image compositing,” U.S. Patent 4,409,611 (11 October 1983).

P. E. Vlahos, P. Vlahos, and D. F. Fellinger, “Automated encoded signal color image compositing,” U.S. Patent 4,589,013 (13 May 1986).

P. Vlahos, “Comprehensive electronic compositing system,” U.S. Patent 4,625,231 (25 November 2 1986 ).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

G. Barbastathis, “The transfer function of volume holographic optical systems,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications, Springer Series in Optical Science, J. -P. Huignard and P. Günter, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp. 51-76.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2005).

J. O. Berger, Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer-Verlag, 1985).

D. Marr and T. Poggio, “A theory of human stereo vision,” Artificial Intelligence Lab Publications, AI Memos AIM-451 (MIT, 1977), http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/6093.

S. Chaudhuri and A. Rajagopalan, Depth from Defocus: a Real Aperture Imaging Approach (Springer, 1999).

B. Curless, “Overview of active vision techniques: SIGGRAPH 99 Course on 3D Photography” (1999), http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~seitz/course/SIGG00/slides/curless-active.pdf.

A. P. Cracknell and L. Hayes, Introduction to Remote Sensing (Taylor &Francis, 2007).

C. J. R. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (Springer, 1997).

B. K. P. Horn, Robot Vision (MIT Press, 1986).

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