Abstract

Ocean-color applications require maximum uncertainties in blue-wavelength water-leaving radiances in oligotrophic ocean of approximately 5%. Water-leaving radiances from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite, however, exhibit temporal drift of the order of 15% as well as sensor changes in response versus scan and polarization sensitivity, which cannot be tracked by onboard calibrators. This paper introduces an instrument characterization approach that uses Earth-view data as a calibration source. The approach models the top of the atmosphere signal over ocean that the instrument is expected to measure, including its polarization, with water-leaving radiances coming from another well-calibrated global sensor. The cross calibration allows for significant improvement in derived MODIS–Terra ocean-color products, with largest changes in the blue wavelengths.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
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  9. R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762-773 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
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  14. B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068-5082(2007).
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  17. J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
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  21. C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
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  26. H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948(1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5653 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, and M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 32, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995).
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  41. M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Applied Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey, S. B. Hooker, D. Antoine, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Sources and assumptions for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite observations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2035-2045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068-5082(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun and X. Xiong, “MODIS polarization-sensitivity analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2875-2885(2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, C. R. McClain, and S. B. Hooker, “The on-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using a sea surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Analysis of image striping due to polarization correction artifacts in remotely sensed ocean scenes,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609(2006).

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8951-8963 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong and W. L. Barnes, “An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB 1006 (2005).

2004

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An Overview of the SeaWiFS Project and Strategies for Producing a Climate Research Quality Global Ocean Bio-optical Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, “Application of machine learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated global chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWIFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180(2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J.Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451-455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948(1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and G. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).

1994

1983

I. Kalantari and G. McDonald, “A data structure and an algorithm for the nearest point problem,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. SE-9, 631-634 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).

1964

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Goley, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627-1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

Andrefouet, S.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

S. W. Bailey, S. B. Hooker, D. Antoine, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Sources and assumptions for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite observations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2035-2045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J.Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

Balch, W. M.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W.

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

X. Xiong and W. L. Barnes, “An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB 1006 (2005).

Blaisdell, J. M.

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, and M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 32, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995).

Boss, E.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB 1006 (2005).

Broenkow, W. W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, and M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 32, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995).

Carder, K. L.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Che, N.

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K.

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darzi, M.

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, and M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 32, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995).

Davis, C. O.

Dechamps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erives, H.

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 1, S.H.Hooker and E.R.Firestone, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Esposito, J.

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, “Application of machine learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated global chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feinholz, M. E.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An Overview of the SeaWiFS Project and Strategies for Producing a Climate Research Quality Global Ocean Bio-optical Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 1, S.H.Hooker and E.R.Firestone, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Flora, S. J.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

S. W. Bailey, S. B. Hooker, D. Antoine, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Sources and assumptions for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite observations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2035-2045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Applied Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068-5082(2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, C. R. McClain, and S. B. Hooker, “The on-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using a sea surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B. C.

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, G.

Goley, M. J. E.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Goley, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627-1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948(1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452(1994).

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 1, S.H.Hooker and E.R.Firestone, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Guenther, B.

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. W. Bailey, S. B. Hooker, D. Antoine, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Sources and assumptions for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite observations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2035-2045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, C. R. McClain, and S. B. Hooker, “The on-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using a sea surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An Overview of the SeaWiFS Project and Strategies for Producing a Climate Research Quality Global Ocean Bio-optical Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 1, S.H.Hooker and E.R.Firestone, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Houlihan, T.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Isaacman, A.

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalantari, I.

I. Kalantari and G. McDonald, “A data structure and an algorithm for the nearest point problem,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. SE-9, 631-634 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwiatkowska, E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Applied Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Analysis of image striping due to polarization correction artifacts in remotely sensed ocean scenes,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609(2006).

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, “Application of machine learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated global chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180(2001).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Applied Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068-5082(2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, C. R. McClain, and S. B. Hooker, “The on-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using a sea surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Analysis of image striping due to polarization correction artifacts in remotely sensed ocean scenes,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609(2006).

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An Overview of the SeaWiFS Project and Strategies for Producing a Climate Research Quality Global Ocean Bio-optical Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 1, S.H.Hooker and E.R.Firestone, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

McDonald, G.

I. Kalantari and G. McDonald, “A data structure and an algorithm for the nearest point problem,” IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. SE-9, 631-634 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meister, G.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Applied Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Analysis of image striping due to polarization correction artifacts in remotely sensed ocean scenes,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609(2006).

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minnett, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, C. R. McClain, and S. B. Hooker, “The on-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using a sea surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180(2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J.Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and G. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).

Mueller, J. L.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

Peters, D.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).

Salomonson, V.

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Savitzky, A.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Goley, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627-1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, G. M.

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shea, D. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB 1006 (2005).

Siegel, D. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB 1006 (2005).

Solomonson, V.

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J-Q.

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun and X. Xiong, “MODIS polarization-sensitivity analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2875-2885(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Thomas, D.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

Voss, K.

K. Voss, Physics Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (personal communication, 2008).

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waluschka, E.

E. Waluschka, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 551.0, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (personal communication, 2008).

Wang, M.

Wang, M. H.

M. H. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

Xiong, X.

J-Q. Sun and X. Xiong, “MODIS polarization-sensitivity analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2875-2885(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
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X. Xiong and W. L. Barnes, “An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
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X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yarbrough, M. A.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
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Zhang, T.

Adv. Atmos. Sci.

X. Xiong and W. L. Barnes, “An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
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Anal. Chem.

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Appl. Opt.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, C. R. McClain, and S. B. Hooker, “The on-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using a sea surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007).
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M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8951-8963 (2006).
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M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
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G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
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R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
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R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses,” Appl. Opt. 46, 762-773 (2007).
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B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068-5082(2007).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An Overview of the SeaWiFS Project and Strategies for Producing a Climate Research Quality Global Ocean Bio-optical Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB 1006 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, J-Q. Sun, W. Barnes, V. Salomonson, J. Esposito, H. Erives, and B. Guenther, “Multi-year on-orbit calibration and performance of Terra MODIS reflective solar bands,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 879-889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun and X. Xiong, “MODIS polarization-sensitivity analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 2875-2885(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184-197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, “Application of machine learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated global chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
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Int. J. Remote Sens.

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWIFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J.Remote Sens.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J.Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Applied Remote Sens.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Applied Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180(2001).
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Metrologia

X. Xiong, K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Metrologia 40, S89-S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-Q. Sun, X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. Barnes, “Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon,” Metrologia 40, S85-S88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).

X. Xiong, W. Barnes, K. Chiang, H. Erives, N. Che, J-Q. Sun, A. Isaacman, and V. Solomonson, “Status of Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5570, 317-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Analysis of image striping due to polarization correction artifacts in remotely sensed ocean scenes,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609(2006).

Remote Sens. Environ.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, S. Andrefouet, and K. L. Carder, “Atmospheric correction and calibration of LANDSAT-7/ETM+ imagery over aquatic environments: a multi-platform approach using SeaWiFS/MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 99-107 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

Other

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 1, S.H.Hooker and E.R.Firestone, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

E. Waluschka, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 551.0, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (personal communication, 2008).

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, and M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 32, S.B.Hooker, E.R.Firestone, and J.G.Acker, eds. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 1986).

K. Voss, Physics Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (personal communication, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

On-orbit direct calibration results for MODIS–Terra and Aqua band 8, 412 nm . Band 8 response has been degrading the most on both platforms. Instrument radiometric sensitivities are tracked by Sun observations relayed by the SD and Moon observations through the SV port. Results are shown for two sides of the MODIS scan mirror, mirror-side 1 (MS1) and mirror-side 2 (MS2), and for detector 4 of band 8. SD trends are corrected for degradation of the diffuser plate, which is assessed by the SDSM. MODIS–Terra calibration shift in late 2000 to mid-2001 is caused by the switch in electronics side from A to B and back to A. MODIS–Terra calibration version is 5.0.38.1c, and MODIS–Aqua version is 5.0.35.2a.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (c) Time series of chlorophyll-a concentrations, and (b), (d) normalized water-leaving radiances ( n L w or L w n ) for (a), (b) SeaWiFS and (c), (d) MODIS–Terra. The time series represent anomalies away from systematic yearly trends in oligotrophic global ocean. They are obtained by averaging sensor 4 day coverage sampled in monthly intervals through the lifetimes of both missions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-calibration results for MODIS–Terra blue bands 8–10, 412, 443, and 488 nm , which showed the strongest discrepancies in derived ocean-color products. The results are gain 1 / M 11 and polarization sensitivities M 12 and M 13 , which are plotted through time for detector 4, both mirror sides, and at three mirror AOIs. Mirror-side 1 (MS1) is drawn in solid curve and mirror-side 2 (MS2) is in dotted curve. The three mirror AOIs are SV lunar equivalent shown in blue (EV pixel 24), nadir view in green (pixel 687), and SD equivalent in red (pixel 979). For M 12 and M 13 , prelaunch polarization sensitivities at nadir AOI are shown as black dotted lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporally smoothed cross-calibration results along MODIS scan for the blue ocean-color band RVS, 1 / M 11 , and polarization sensitivities, M 12 . The results are derived assuming operational prelaunch M 13 values and are shown for detector 4 and two mirror sides, mirror-side 1 (MS1) in the top three rows and mirror-side 2 (MS2) in the bottom three rows. The colors illustrate progression in time from black/dark purple at the beginning of Terra mission imaging in 2000 to red at the end of 2007. Black dotted lines in the M 12 and M 13 plots represent prelaunch polarization sensitivity measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-calibration results for the two MODIS sensors on (a) Terra and (b) Aqua platforms. The same cross-calibration approach is applied for both instruments. The results are temporally smoothed and shown along scan for all seven visible ocean-color bands. RVS, 1 / M 11 , and polarization sensitivity, M 12 , are illustrated for mirror-side 2 and detector 4, where M 13 are used at their operational prelaunch values. The colors depict progression in time from black/dark purple at the beginning of each mission to red at the end of 2007. Black dotted lines in the M 12 and M 13 plots represent respective prelaunch polarization sensitivity measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of MODIS–Terra validation of derived ocean-color products (a)–(c) before and (d)–(f) after application of the cross calibration. (a), (d) The first column shows time series of ratios of normalized water-leaving radiances from MODIS–Terra and MODIS–Aqua for the blue and green bands. (b), (e) The second column demonstrates along-scan trends of RVS and detector variabilities in terms of normalized water-leaving radiances in band 8, 412 nm . (c), (f) The third column illustrates chlorophyll-a concentration anomalies away from systematic yearly trends in the oligotrophic ocean.

Equations (9)

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L t ( λ ) = [ L r ( λ ) + L a ( λ ) + t d v ( λ ) L f ( λ ) + t d v ( λ ) L w ( λ ) ] t g v ( λ ) t g s ( λ ) .
L m = M R ( α ) L t ,
M = [ M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 41 M 44 ] , R ( α ) = [ 1 0 0 0 0 cos 2 α sin 2 α 0 0 sin 2 α cos 2 α 0 0 0 0 1 ] , L t = [ L t Q t U t V t ] ,
L m = M 11 L t + M 12 ( Q t cos 2 α + U t sin 2 α ) + M 13 ( Q t sin 2 α + U t cos 2 α ) ,
M 1 i = M 1 i , 0 + M 1 i , 1 p + + M 1 i , n p n , i { 1 , 2 , 3 } ,
m 12 = M 12 M 11 , m 13 = M 13 M 11 ,
L t = L m / M 11 m 12 ( Q t cos 2 α + U t sin 2 α ) m 13 ( Q t sin 2 α + U t cos 2 α ) .
p a = m 12 2 + m 13 2 .
L m m = M 11 , 0 L t + M 11 , 1 p L t + M 11 , 2 p 2 L t + M 11 , 3 p 3 L t + M 12 , 0 Q t + M 12 , 1 p Q t + M 13 , 0 U t + M 13 , 1 p U t ,

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