The Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) recently has been extensively researched for optical surface metrology due to its extendable dynamic range compared with interferometry technique. In this paper, we proposed to use a digital SHWS to measure toroidal surfaces, which are widely used in many optical systems due to their different symmetries and curvatures in the X and Y directions. For what is believed to be the first time, an asymmetrical optical lenslet array implemented by a spatial light modulator was presented to tackle the measurement challenge. This unconventional design approach has a great advantage to provide different optical powers in the X and Y directions so that focusing spots can be formed and captured on the detector plane for accurate centroid finding and precise wavefront evaluation for 3D shape reconstruction of the toroidal surface. A digital SHWS system with this extraordinary microlens array was built to verify the design concept, and the experimental results were presented and analyzed.
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