Abstract

The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has developed multispectral ground-viewing radiometers that use light-emitting diodes as detectors. This work describes the optical design, electrical design, and laboratory calibration of a three-channel radiometer that operates in the visible and near-infrared region of the spectrum. The optical and electrical design of the radiometer is introduced, and then the calibration and characterization of the radiometer are described. Laboratory measurements include the spectral responsivity for each channel of the radiometer, the temperature dependence of the total responsivity for each channel, system linearity, field of view, and finally, the absolute radiometric calibration. A solar-radiation-based calibration is used to determine the absolute respon sivity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar-reflective range,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 293-303(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. J. Thome, “Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ using the reflectance-based method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 27-38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. J. Thome, S. F. Biggar, and H.-J. Choi, “Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 290-299 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. J. Thome, J. S. Czapla-Myers, and S. F. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395-405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, and W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 697-707(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. F. Biggar, “Calibration of a visible and near-infrared portable transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 701-706 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. M. Mims III, “Sun photometer with light-emitting diodes as spectrally selective detectors,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6965-6967 (1992).
  9. Y. B. Acharya, A. Jayaraman, S. Ramachandran, and B. H. Subbaraya, “Compact light-emitting-diode sun photometer for atmospheric optical depth measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1209-1214 (1995).
  10. D. R. Brooks and F. M. Mims III, “Development of an inexpensive handheld LED-based Sun photometer for the GLOBE program,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4733-4740 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. M. Mims III, “An inexpensive and stable LED Sun photometer for measuring the water vapor column over South Texas from 1990 to 2001,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20.1-20.4 (2002).
  12. E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3754 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. L. Wyatt, Radiometric System Design (Macmillan, 1987).
  14. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  15. J. E. Greivenkamp, Field Guide to Geometrical Optics, SPIE Field Guides (SPIE, 2004).
  16. P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed.(Cambridge U. Press, 1989).
  17. E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1996).
  18. M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088-1100 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. J. Thome, S. F. Biggar, and H.-J. Choi, “Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 290-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. J. Thome, J. S. Czapla-Myers, and S. F. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. M. Mims III, “An inexpensive and stable LED Sun photometer for measuring the water vapor column over South Texas from 1990 to 2001,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20.1-20.4 (2002).

2001 (3)

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar-reflective range,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 293-303(2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, “Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ using the reflectance-based method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Brooks and F. M. Mims III, “Development of an inexpensive handheld LED-based Sun photometer for the GLOBE program,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4733-4740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088-1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, and W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 697-707(1998).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, “Calibration of a visible and near-infrared portable transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 701-706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Abuhassan, N.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, Y. B.

Araki, T.

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088-1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biggar, S. F.

K. J. Thome, S. F. Biggar, and H.-J. Choi, “Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 290-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, J. S. Czapla-Myers, and S. F. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar-reflective range,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 293-303(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, “Calibration of a visible and near-infrared portable transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 701-706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1996).

Brogniez, G.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D. R.

D. R. Brooks and F. M. Mims III, “Development of an inexpensive handheld LED-based Sun photometer for the GLOBE program,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4733-4740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-J.

K. J. Thome, S. F. Biggar, and H.-J. Choi, “Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 290-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Czapla-Myers, J. S.

K. J. Thome, J. S. Czapla-Myers, and S. F. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1996).

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Ehsani, A. R.

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, and W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 697-707(1998).
[CrossRef]

Erxleben, W. H.

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, and W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 697-707(1998).
[CrossRef]

Greivenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp, Field Guide to Geometrical Optics, SPIE Field Guides (SPIE, 2004).

Hill, W.

P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed.(Cambridge U. Press, 1989).

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Holm, R. G.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, P.

P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed.(Cambridge U. Press, 1989).

Itami, S.

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, R. D.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Janjowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman, A.

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, M.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mao, Y.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Mims, F. M.

F. M. Mims III, “An inexpensive and stable LED Sun photometer for measuring the water vapor column over South Texas from 1990 to 2001,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20.1-20.4 (2002).

D. R. Brooks and F. M. Mims III, “Development of an inexpensive handheld LED-based Sun photometer for the GLOBE program,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4733-4740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mims III, “Sun photometer with light-emitting diodes as spectrally selective detectors,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6965-6967 (1992).

Miyazaki, E.

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3751-3754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M. S.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Pagano, T. S.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088-1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, J. M.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar-reflective range,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 293-303(2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Reagan, J. A.

A. R. Ehsani, J. A. Reagan, and W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 697-707(1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088-1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Sicard, M.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar-reflective range,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 293-303(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Spyak, P.

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Subbaraya, B. H.

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

K. J. Thome, S. F. Biggar, and H.-J. Choi, “Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 290-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, J. S. Czapla-Myers, and S. F. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, “Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ using the reflectance-based method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, J. M. Palmer, and K. J. Thome, “Unified approach to absolute radiometric calibration in the solar-reflective range,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 293-303(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, K. J. Thome, A. W. Holmes, and R. A. Barnes, “Preflight solar-based calibration of SeaWiFS,” Proc. SPIE 1939, 233-242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Janjowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16(1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, C. L.

C. L. Wyatt, Radiometric System Design (Macmillan, 1987).

Yuan, B.

P. N. Slater, S. F. Biggar, R. G. Holm, R. D. Jackson, Y. Mao, M. S. Moran, J. M. Palmer, and B. Yuan, “Reflectance- and radiance-based methods for the in-flight absolute calibration of multispectral sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 11-37(1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

F. M. Mims III, “An inexpensive and stable LED Sun photometer for measuring the water vapor column over South Texas from 1990 to 2001,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 20.1-20.4 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088-1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Sicard, P. Spyak, G. Brogniez, M. Legrand, N. Abuhassan, C. Pietras, and J. Buis, “Thermal-infrared field radiometer for vicarious cross-calibration: characterization and comparisons with other field instruments,” Opt. Eng. 38, 345-356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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K. J. Thome, S. F. Biggar, and H.-J. Choi, “Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 290-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Thome, J. S. Czapla-Myers, and S. F. Biggar, “Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 395-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical design for the LED radiometer showing both the on-axis rays and the 5.5 ° (half field of view) off-axis rays. The line on the left represents the opening of the housing tube and the line on the extreme right represents the focal plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized spectral responsivity of the green channel for four LED ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectral responsivity of the red channel for four LED ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized spectral responsivity of the near-infrared channel for four LED ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized temperature dependence of each channel’s responsivity for an LED radiometer. The data are normalized to 20 ° C .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linearity results for the green, red, and NIR channels of an LED radiometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two orientations of each LED for the field-of-view measurements, as viewed looking into the radiometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Field-of-view response for the red channel of a LED radiometer. In this case, the LED is in the 12:00 position (see Fig. 7).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Field-of-view response for the red channel of a LED radiometer. In this case, the LED is in the 9:00 position (see Fig. 7).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Nadir-viewing LED radiometer voltage for a clear, sunny day (left), a day with 9.9 mm of precipitation (center), and a cloudy day (right). Day 264 corresponds to 21 September 2005.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature-corrected output voltage for the green, red, and NIR channels of one LED radiometer at Railroad Valley, Nevada. The temperature of the focal plane is shown on the right axis. Day 73 corresponds to 14 March 2005.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Surface BRF of Railroad Valley, measured on 14 and 15 March 2005 using three LED radiometers (LED) and a portable spectroradiometer (ASD). The LED radiometer values are obtained using an average from the three radiometers, while the ASD values are an average of the whole site.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Thermal Calibration of LED-Based Ground-Viewing Radiometers a

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Table 2 Absolute Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Four LED Radiometers Obtained Using an SRBC a

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Table 3 BRF of Various Surfaces Measured Using a Portable Spectroradiometer (ASD) and LED Radiometer a

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Table 4 BRF Measured Using an LED Radiometer and a Portable Spectroradiometer (ASD) a

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s 1 s 2 = A D ,
f = s 1 s 2 s 1 s 2 .
LED ( λ ) = Si ( λ ) I LED ( λ ) I Si ( λ ) ,
V cor = V raw [ 1 + C T ( T rad T ref ) ] ,
E panel = E 0 τ atmo cos θ + E sky ,
L = ρ π E 0 τ atmo cos θ ,
C = L V cor ,
ρ = π C V E 0 τ A cos θ + E sky ,
E sky = π C V ρ panel ,

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