Abstract

A laboratory-modeling installation for experimental investigations of light and image transfer through a wavy water surface was described. Measurements of the modulation transfer function of turbid media and a wavy surface have proved the reliability of laboratory image transfer modeling. An experiment to correct the image distortion caused by surface wave refraction of an underwater object was done using laboratory-modeling installation. A color digital camera was used to simultaneously obtain an image of the object and a glitter pattern on the surface. Processing the glitter pattern allows one to obtain the values of surface slopes at a limited number of points and to use these slopes for retrieval of image fragments. A totally corrected image is formed by accumulating the fragments. The accumulated image closely matches an original undistorted image. The experiment demonstrates that correction of image distortion produced by surface waves is possible, at least in special cases.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Dolin, G. Gilbert, I. Levin, and A. Luchinin, Theory of Imaging through Wavy Sea Surface (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 2006).
  2. Yu.-A. R. Mullamaa, “Effect of wavy sea surface on the visibility of underwater objects,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 11, 199-205 (1975).
  3. L. S. Dolin and I. M. Levin, Spravochnik po Teorii Podvodnogo Videniya. (Handbook of the Theory of Underwater Vision) (Gidrometeoizdat, 1991) (in Russian).
  4. L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Algorithm of recovering underwater object images distorted by surface waving,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 40, 842-850 (2004).
  5. A. G. Luchinin, L. S. Dolin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correction of images of submerged objects on the basis of incomplete information about surface roughness,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 272-277 (2005).
  6. L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Weber, “Observation of underwater object through glitter part of the sea surface,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 48, 38-52 (2005).
  8. C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838-850 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. E. Walker, Marine Light Field Statistics (Wiley, 1994)
  10. V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

2007

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. Weber, “Observation of underwater object through glitter part of the sea surface,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 48, 38-52 (2005).

A. G. Luchinin, L. S. Dolin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correction of images of submerged objects on the basis of incomplete information about surface roughness,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 272-277 (2005).

2004

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Algorithm of recovering underwater object images distorted by surface waving,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 40, 842-850 (2004).

1975

Yu.-A. R. Mullamaa, “Effect of wavy sea surface on the visibility of underwater objects,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 11, 199-205 (1975).

1954

Cox, C.

Dolin, L.

L. Dolin, G. Gilbert, I. Levin, and A. Luchinin, Theory of Imaging through Wavy Sea Surface (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 2006).

Dolin, L. S.

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Luchinin, L. S. Dolin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correction of images of submerged objects on the basis of incomplete information about surface roughness,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 272-277 (2005).

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Algorithm of recovering underwater object images distorted by surface waving,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 40, 842-850 (2004).

L. S. Dolin and I. M. Levin, Spravochnik po Teorii Podvodnogo Videniya. (Handbook of the Theory of Underwater Vision) (Gidrometeoizdat, 1991) (in Russian).

Frantsuzov, O. N.

V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

Gilbert, G.

L. Dolin, G. Gilbert, I. Levin, and A. Luchinin, Theory of Imaging through Wavy Sea Surface (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 2006).

Levin, I.

L. Dolin, G. Gilbert, I. Levin, and A. Luchinin, Theory of Imaging through Wavy Sea Surface (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 2006).

Levin, I. M.

V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

L. S. Dolin and I. M. Levin, Spravochnik po Teorii Podvodnogo Videniya. (Handbook of the Theory of Underwater Vision) (Gidrometeoizdat, 1991) (in Russian).

Luchinin, A.

L. Dolin, G. Gilbert, I. Levin, and A. Luchinin, Theory of Imaging through Wavy Sea Surface (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 2006).

Luchinin, A. G.

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Luchinin, L. S. Dolin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correction of images of submerged objects on the basis of incomplete information about surface roughness,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 272-277 (2005).

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Algorithm of recovering underwater object images distorted by surface waving,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 40, 842-850 (2004).

Mullamaa, Yu.-A. R.

Yu.-A. R. Mullamaa, “Effect of wavy sea surface on the visibility of underwater objects,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 11, 199-205 (1975).

Munk, W.

Osadchy, V. Ju.

V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

Rybalka, N. N.

V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

Savchenko, V. V.

V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

Titov, V. I.

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turlaev, D. G.

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Luchinin, L. S. Dolin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correction of images of submerged objects on the basis of incomplete information about surface roughness,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 272-277 (2005).

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Algorithm of recovering underwater object images distorted by surface waving,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 40, 842-850 (2004).

Walker, R. E.

R. E. Walker, Marine Light Field Statistics (Wiley, 1994)

Weber, V.

V. Weber, “Observation of underwater object through glitter part of the sea surface,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 48, 38-52 (2005).

Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys.

Yu.-A. R. Mullamaa, “Effect of wavy sea surface on the visibility of underwater objects,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 11, 199-205 (1975).

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Algorithm of recovering underwater object images distorted by surface waving,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 40, 842-850 (2004).

A. G. Luchinin, L. S. Dolin, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correction of images of submerged objects on the basis of incomplete information about surface roughness,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 41, 272-277 (2005).

Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz.

V. Weber, “Observation of underwater object through glitter part of the sea surface,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 48, 38-52 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. SPIE

L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, V. I. Titov, and D. G. Turlaev, “Correcting images of underwater objects distorted by sea surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 6615, 66150K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. S. Dolin and I. M. Levin, Spravochnik po Teorii Podvodnogo Videniya. (Handbook of the Theory of Underwater Vision) (Gidrometeoizdat, 1991) (in Russian).

L. Dolin, G. Gilbert, I. Levin, and A. Luchinin, Theory of Imaging through Wavy Sea Surface (Institute of Applied Physics RAS, 2006).

R. E. Walker, Marine Light Field Statistics (Wiley, 1994)

V. Ju. Osadchy, V. V. Savchenko, I. M. Levin, O. N. Frantsuzov, and N. N. Rybalka, “Correction of image distorted by wavy water surface,” in Proceedings of the International Conference “Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters” (ONW'2007) (Institute of Applied Physics, 2007), pp. 91-93.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photos of an underwater self-luminous test object obtained in the Black Sea from a height of H = 8 m with an exposure time of 1 / 500 s through a wavy sea surface with a wind velocity of 2.5 m / s . The depths of the test object are 1 m (a), 5 m (b), and 10 m (c), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of the laboratory-modeling installation (LMI). 1, basin; 2, rotary-coordinating unit; 3, source of diffuse light; 4, light source of wide parallel beam with a unit for changing filters; 5, photo- or TV camera; 6, bottom glass window; 7, test object; 8, glass; 9, opal glass; 10, flat mirror; 11, condenser; 12, unit for changing filters; 13, lamp; 14, unit for mounting and adjusting a light source; 15, unit for moving the photo- or TVcamera; 16, fan; 17, steel bar. All sizes are given in millimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of observation through a wavy water surface. N is the normal to the surface at the point r s with the slope η, through which the object point r 1 is observed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scheme of the experiment: 1, water surface; 2, glass; 3, diffuse light source; 4, test object; 5, source of the parallel light beam; 6, digital photo camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of the test object with constant width of the strips: original image (a), single instantaneous image (b), corrected image (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of a test object with varying width of the strips: original image (a), single instantaneous image (b), accumulated image without correction (c), corrected image (d).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MTF s ( ν ; z , σ , n ) = exp [ 2 π 2 z 2 ν 2 σ 2 ( 1 1 / n ) 2 ] ,
MTF s m = MTF m × MTF s .
j 1 = r 1 + z η ( 1 n 1 ) H + z / n ,
j 2 = r 1 H + z / n .

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