Abstract

A double-pass negative-branch hybrid resonator is applied to a 10kW chemical oxygen iodine laser. The resonator is folded in such a way that the dimension of the stable direction is reduced. The intensity distributions of the near and far fields of the laser beam and the sensitivity against tilts of the output mirror are investigated. A comparison between theory and experiment is performed. It is shown that the folded hybrid resonator provides a better beam quality and therefore a higher power density in the far field than a single-pass hybrid resonator. The sensitivity against tilts of the resonator mirrors in the stable direction is reduced.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Handke, K. Grünewald, and W. O. Schall, “Power extraction in investigations for a 10 kW-class supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 3574, 309-314 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, “Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Siegman, “Unstable optical resonators,” Appl. Opt. 13, 353-367 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. M. Grünewald, and J. Handke, “Modified negative branch confocal unstable resonator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8777-8780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Pargmann, T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. M. Grünewald, and J. Handke, “COIL emission of a modified negative-branch confocal unstable resonator,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7751-7756 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, “Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator,” Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, “A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Borghese, R. Canevari, V. Donati, and L. Garifo, “Unstable-stable resonators with toroidal mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3547-3552 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950-1952 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. E. Siegman, “Stable-unstable resonator design for a wide-tuning-range free-electron laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1243-1247 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lapucci, A. Labate, F. Rossetti, and S. Mascalchi, “Hybrid stable-unstable resonators for diffusion-cooled CO2 slab lasers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3185-3192 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hall, “Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium-sized chemical oxygen iodine laser,” Opt. Eng. 44, 114201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Handke, W. O. Schall, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “Chemical oxygen-iodine laser power generation with an off-axis hybrid resonator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3831-3838 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Handke, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “High beam quality COIL with hybrid resonators,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63460F (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).
  17. A. G. Fox and T. Li, “Resonant modes in a maser interferometer,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).
  18. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).
  19. N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation (Springer, 2005).

2007 (3)

M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Handke, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “High beam quality COIL with hybrid resonators,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63460F (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pargmann, T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. M. Grünewald, and J. Handke, “COIL emission of a modified negative-branch confocal unstable resonator,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7751-7756 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

T. Hall, “Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium-sized chemical oxygen iodine laser,” Opt. Eng. 44, 114201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, “Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Handke, K. Grünewald, and W. O. Schall, “Power extraction in investigations for a 10 kW-class supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 3574, 309-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “Stable-unstable resonator design for a wide-tuning-range free-electron laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1243-1247 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950-1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, “A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, “Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator,” Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1961 (1)

A. G. Fox and T. Li, “Resonant modes in a maser interferometer,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

Baker, H. J.

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950-1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Borghese, A.

Bourne, O. L.

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, “A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Canevari, R.

Ciofini, M.

M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donati, V.

Duschek, F.

Dyer, P. E.

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, “A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, “Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator,” Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Favilla, E.

M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. G.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, “Resonant modes in a maser interferometer,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

Garifo, L.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Grünewald, K.

J. Handke, K. Grünewald, and W. O. Schall, “Power extraction in investigations for a 10 kW-class supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 3574, 309-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grünewald, K. M.

Hall, D. R.

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950-1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T.

Handke, J.

J. Handke, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “High beam quality COIL with hybrid resonators,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63460F (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Pargmann, T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. M. Grünewald, and J. Handke, “COIL emission of a modified negative-branch confocal unstable resonator,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7751-7756 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. M. Grünewald, and J. Handke, “Modified negative branch confocal unstable resonator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8777-8780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Handke, W. O. Schall, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “Chemical oxygen-iodine laser power generation with an off-axis hybrid resonator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3831-3838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, “Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Handke, K. Grünewald, and W. O. Schall, “Power extraction in investigations for a 10 kW-class supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 3574, 309-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation (Springer, 2005).

Jackson, P. E.

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950-1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

James, D. J.

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, “Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator,” Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Labate, A.

Lapucci, A.

M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lapucci, A. Labate, F. Rossetti, and S. Mascalchi, “Hybrid stable-unstable resonators for diffusion-cooled CO2 slab lasers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3185-3192 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, “Resonant modes in a maser interferometer,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

Mascalchi, S.

Pargmann, C.

Rossetti, F.

Sani, E.

M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schall, W. O.

J. Handke, W. O. Schall, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “Chemical oxygen-iodine laser power generation with an off-axis hybrid resonator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3831-3838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Handke, K. Grünewald, and W. O. Schall, “Power extraction in investigations for a 10 kW-class supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 3574, 309-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, “Stable-unstable resonator design for a wide-tuning-range free-electron laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1243-1247 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “Unstable optical resonators,” Appl. Opt. 13, 353-367 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Weber, H.

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation (Springer, 2005).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. E. Jackson, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “CO2 large-area discharge laser using an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1950-1952 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

A. G. Fox and T. Li, “Resonant modes in a maser interferometer,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman, “Stable-unstable resonator design for a wide-tuning-range free-electron laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1243-1247 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, “Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator,” Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, “A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Hall, “Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium-sized chemical oxygen iodine laser,” Opt. Eng. 44, 114201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

M. Ciofini, E. Favilla, A. Lapucci, and E. Sani, “Propagation parameters of the beam extracted from a diode pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a hybrid stable-unstable resonator,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1380-1388 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. Handke, K. Grünewald, and W. O. Schall, “Power extraction in investigations for a 10 kW-class supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 3574, 309-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, “Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL,” Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Handke, T. Hall, F. Duschek, and K. M. Grünewald, “High beam quality COIL with hybrid resonators,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63460F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the NBHR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side and top view of the D-NBHR showing the back mirror (BM), the output mirror (OM), and the corner reflector (CR).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical setup for the measurement of total output power, far field and near field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Computation and measurement of the intensity distribution of the near field of the D-NBHR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated and measured far field of the D-NBHR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes of the output power depending on tilt of the output mirror in the unstable and stable direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change of the intensity distribution of the far field in theory and experiment after tilting one of the mirrors of the corner reflector (CR) by 30 μrad or the output mirror (OM) by 50 μrad .

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