Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hyperspectral imaging-based optical structure for verifying a credit card. Our key idea comes from the fact that the fine detail of the embossed hologram stamped on the credit card is hard to duplicate, and therefore its key color features can be used for distinguishing between the real and counterfeit ones. As the embossed hologram is a diffractive optical element, we shine a number of broadband light sources one at a time, each at a different incident angle, on the embossed hologram of the credit card in such a way that different color spectra per incident angle beam are diffracted and separated in space. In this way, the center of mass of the histogram on each color plane is investigated by using a feed-forward backpropagation neural-network configuration. Our experimental demonstration using two off-the-shelf broadband white light emitting diodes, one digital camera, and a three-layer neural network can effectively identify 38 genuine and 109 counterfeit credit cards with false rejection rates of 5.26% and 0.92%, respectively. Key features include low cost, simplicity, no moving parts, no need of an additional decoding key, and adaptive learning.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Benton, “Method for making reduced bandwidth holograms,” U.S. patent 3,633,989 (11 January, 1972).
  2. P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61-67 (1999).
  3. W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).
  4. G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).
  5. A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).
  6. S. B. Odinokov, “Optoelectronic array processor for identifying holograms with encoded latent images,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 449-456 (2006).
  7. P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).
  8. P. A. O'Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, and S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International patent application WO2005/057506 (23 June 2005).
  9. S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66-76 (1990).
  10. J. Legault and M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82-88(2005).
  11. M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, and Y.-R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927-3934 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Ding, Y.-R. Chen, K. Chao, and M. S. Kim, “Three-color mixing for classifying agricultural products for safety and quality,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3516-3526 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Nakariyakul and D. Casasent, “Fusion algorithm for poultry skin tumor detection using hyperspectral data,” Appl. Opt. 46, 357-364 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. I. Metternicht and J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1-20 (2003).
  15. P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon News 18(4), 22-27 (2007).
  16. E. B. Brauns and R. B. Dyer, “Fourier transform hyperspectral visible image and the nondestructive analysis of potentially fraudulent documents,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, pp. 833-840(2006).
  17. J. L. Nieves, E. M. Valero, S. M. C. Nascimento, J. Hernández-Andŕes, and J. Romero, “Multispectral synthesis of daylight using a commercial digital CCD camera,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5696-5703 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
  19. S. Sumriddetchkajorn and Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318 (2008).
  20. S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1999).
  21. MatLab 7.0, The MathWorks Inc., 3 Apple Drive, Natick, Mass. 01760-2098, USA.

2008 (1)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318 (2008).

2007 (2)

S. Nakariyakul and D. Casasent, “Fusion algorithm for poultry skin tumor detection using hyperspectral data,” Appl. Opt. 46, 357-364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon News 18(4), 22-27 (2007).

2006 (5)

E. B. Brauns and R. B. Dyer, “Fourier transform hyperspectral visible image and the nondestructive analysis of potentially fraudulent documents,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, pp. 833-840(2006).

F. Ding, Y.-R. Chen, K. Chao, and M. S. Kim, “Three-color mixing for classifying agricultural products for safety and quality,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3516-3526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).

S. B. Odinokov, “Optoelectronic array processor for identifying holograms with encoded latent images,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 449-456 (2006).

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, and Y.-R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927-3934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Metternicht and J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1-20 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).

1999 (1)

P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61-67 (1999).

1996 (1)

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).

1990 (1)

S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66-76 (1990).

Aggarwal, A. K.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).

Benton, S. A.

S. A. Benton, “Method for making reduced bandwidth holograms,” U.S. patent 3,633,989 (11 January, 1972).

Brauns, E. B.

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).

Casasent, D.

Chamberland, M.

J. Legault and M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82-88(2005).

Chao, K.

Chen, T.-J.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

Chen, Y.-R.

Chhachhia, D. P.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).

Daukantas, P.

P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon News 18(4), 22-27 (2007).

Dausmann, G.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).

Ding, F.

Dyer, R. B.

Gnädig, K.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Hernández-Andres, J.

Huang, P. P.

P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61-67 (1999).

Huang, W.-J.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

Intaravanne, Y.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318 (2008).

Kaura, S. K.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).

Kim, M. S.

Kuan, M.-T.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

Lefcourt, A. M.

Legault, J.

J. Legault and M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82-88(2005).

Luna, C.

P. A. O'Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, and S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International patent application WO2005/057506 (23 June 2005).

P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).

McCarthy, S.

P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).

McCarthy, S. D.

P. A. O'Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, and S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International patent application WO2005/057506 (23 June 2005).

McGrew, S. P.

S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66-76 (1990).

Menz, I.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).

Metternicht, G. I.

G. I. Metternicht and J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1-20 (2003).

Nakariyakul, S.

Nascimento, S. M. C.

Nieves, J. L.

Odinokov, S. B.

O'Doherty, P.

P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).

O'Doherty, P. A.

P. A. O'Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, and S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International patent application WO2005/057506 (23 June 2005).

Romero, J.

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).

Smith, P.

P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).

Smith, P. J.

P. A. O'Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, and S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International patent application WO2005/057506 (23 June 2005).

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318 (2008).

Tsai, C.-H.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

Valero, E. M.

Wen, C.-H.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

Yang, Z.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).

Zinck, J. A.

G. I. Metternicht and J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1-20 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

International patent application (1)

P. A. O'Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, and S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International patent application WO2005/057506 (23 June 2005).

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, and A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Laser Technol. 38, 117-121(2006).

Opt. Photon News (1)

P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon News 18(4), 22-27 (2007).

Photonics Spectra (1)

J. Legault and M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82-88(2005).

Proc. SPIE (6)

P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61-67 (1999).

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, and C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H(2006).

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, and Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198-201 (1996).

P. Smith, P. O'Doherty, C. Luna, and S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237-243 (2004).

S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66-76 (1990).

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318 (2008).

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

G. I. Metternicht and J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1-20 (2003).

Other (3)

S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1999).

MatLab 7.0, The MathWorks Inc., 3 Apple Drive, Natick, Mass. 01760-2098, USA.

S. A. Benton, “Method for making reduced bandwidth holograms,” U.S. patent 3,633,989 (11 January, 1972).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Detailed comparison of credit card images from (a) genuine and (b) counterfeit types. The “VISA” trademarks are being used with permission. VISA, VISA & Bands Design, Winged VISA, Winged V, and Dove Design are registered trademarks of Visa International Service Association.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Our proposed angle-demultiplexing-based credit card verifier architecture. S i : i th broadband light source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Feed-forward neural-network configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overview of hologram images from (a) genuine and (b) counterfeit credit cards. The “VISA” trademarks are being used with permission. VISA, VISA & Bands Design, Winged VISA, Winged V, and Dove Design are registered trademarks of Visa International Service Association.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Snapshots of embossed hologram images obtained under the first (top) and second (bottom) white LED illumination on (a) genuine and (b) counterfeit credit cards. The “VISA” trademarks are being used with permission. VISA, VISA & Bands Design, Winged VISA, Winged V, and Dove Design are registered trademarks of Visa International Service Association.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured I pixel along three color planes from 147 embossed holograms with only (a) the first light source at the ON state and (b) the second light source at the ON state. Data in A and B are from the genuine and counterfeit credit cards.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Digital output level obtained from the output layer of our FFNN.

Equations (1)

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I pixel = g g n g g g .

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