Abstract

Photoembossing is a rapid, low cost process to create surface relief structures in polymer thin films via a reaction/diffusion mechanism. It is demonstrated that this technique can be used to create a microlens array of which the focal length can be easily controlled by tuning the processing parameters. In addition, the technique is shown to be particularly interesting since it does not require any physical contact during the development of the microlens array. Additional coatings (e.g., a solution-processable antireflection coating) can therefore be applied prior to the development of the microlens array when the film is still flat. This stimulates the formation of films with a homogeneous thickness distribution and obviates the use of further postprocessing steps.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Hermans, M. van Delden, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095022 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C.-Y. Chang, S.-Y. Yang, and M.-H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 355-361(2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Reaction diffusion model for the preparation of polymer gratings by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4125-4139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Simulations with a dynamic reaction-diffusion model of the polymer grating preparation by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8352-8356(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

2003

C. de Witz and D. J. Broer, “Photo-embossing as a tool for creating complex surface relief structures,” Polym. Prepr. 44, 236-237 (2003).

2002

F. T. O'Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production. Part 1: Background and experiments,” Optik (Jena) 113, 391-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y.-Q. Fu, N. Kok, and A. Bryan, “Microfabrication of microlens array by focused ion beam technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 54, 211-221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, “Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique,” Thin Solid Films 351, 115-118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Matter. 10, 1219-1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

Aegerter, M. A.

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, “Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique,” Thin Solid Films 351, 115-118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, A.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B.

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Witz, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Nano- and microstructuring of polymers,” in Handbook of Polymer Reaction Engineering, T. Meyer and J. Keurentjes, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), Vol. 2, Chap. 19.
[CrossRef]

K. Hermans, M. van Delden, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095022 (2008).

Bel, T.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Reaction diffusion model for the preparation of polymer gratings by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4125-4139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Simulations with a dynamic reaction-diffusion model of the polymer grating preparation by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8352-8356(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. de Witz and D. J. Broer, “Photo-embossing as a tool for creating complex surface relief structures,” Polym. Prepr. 44, 236-237 (2003).

C. Witz, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Nano- and microstructuring of polymers,” in Handbook of Polymer Reaction Engineering, T. Meyer and J. Keurentjes, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), Vol. 2, Chap. 19.
[CrossRef]

K. Hermans, M. van Delden, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095022 (2008).

Bryan, A.

Y.-Q. Fu, N. Kok, and A. Bryan, “Microfabrication of microlens array by focused ion beam technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 54, 211-221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carr, A. J.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chang, S.-Y. Yang, and M.-H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 355-361(2007).
[CrossRef]

Chawla, C.

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

Chu, M.-H.

C.-Y. Chang, S.-Y. Yang, and M.-H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 355-361(2007).
[CrossRef]

Currie, E.

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

Daniels, S. M.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danzebrink, R.

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, “Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique,” Thin Solid Films 351, 115-118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Gans, B.-J.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Jong, A. M.

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Simulations with a dynamic reaction-diffusion model of the polymer grating preparation by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8352-8356(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Reaction diffusion model for the preparation of polymer gratings by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4125-4139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Witz, C.

C. de Witz and D. J. Broer, “Photo-embossing as a tool for creating complex surface relief structures,” Polym. Prepr. 44, 236-237 (2003).

Escuti, M. J.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Fu, N. Kok, and A. Bryan, “Microfabrication of microlens array by focused ion beam technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 54, 211-221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gambogi, W. J.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Matter. 10, 1219-1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, M. R.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, K.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hermans, M. van Delden, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095022 (2008).

Janssen, R. A. J.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

Kang, D. J.

Kelly, J. V.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kok, N.

Y.-Q. Fu, N. Kok, and A. Bryan, “Microfabrication of microlens array by focused ion beam technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 54, 211-221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozodaev, D.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, J. R.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lazare, S.

Leewis, C. M.

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Reaction diffusion model for the preparation of polymer gratings by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4125-4139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Simulations with a dynamic reaction-diffusion model of the polymer grating preparation by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8352-8356(2004).
[CrossRef]

Meijers, G.

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

Mihailov, S.

O'Neil, F. T.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, F. T.

F. T. O'Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production. Part 1: Background and experiments,” Optik (Jena) 113, 391-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perelaer, J.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowsome, I. C.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, C.

C. Witz, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Nano- and microstructuring of polymers,” in Handbook of Polymer Reaction Engineering, T. Meyer and J. Keurentjes, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), Vol. 2, Chap. 19.
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, C.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmieg, J. J.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Matter. 10, 1219-1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, U. S.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, J. T.

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. T. O'Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production. Part 1: Background and experiments,” Optik (Jena) 113, 391-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, J.

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

Thies, J.

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

Trout, T. J.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Matter. 10, 1219-1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Delden, M.

K. Hermans, M. van Delden, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095022 (2008).

van Heesch, C.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van IJzendoorn, L. J.

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Simulations with a dynamic reaction-diffusion model of the polymer grating preparation by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8352-8356(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Reaction diffusion model for the preparation of polymer gratings by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4125-4139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, P.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, A. M.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Matter. 10, 1219-1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Witz, C.

C. Witz, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Nano- and microstructuring of polymers,” in Handbook of Polymer Reaction Engineering, T. Meyer and J. Keurentjes, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), Vol. 2, Chap. 19.
[CrossRef]

Wolf, F. K.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-Y.

C.-Y. Chang, S.-Y. Yang, and M.-H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 355-361(2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

C. Sánchez, B.-J. de Gans, D. Kozodaev, A. Alexeev, M. J. Escuti, C. van Heesch, T. Bel, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Photoembossing of periodic relief structures using polymerization induced diffusion: a combinatorial study,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2567-2571 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Matter.

T. J. Trout, J. J. Schmieg, W. J. Gambogi, and A. M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Matter. 10, 1219-1224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Hermans, F. K. Wolf, J. Perelaer, R. A. J. Janssen, U. S. Schubert, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 174103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Reaction diffusion model for the preparation of polymer gratings by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4125-4139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Leewis, A. M. De Jong, L. J. van IJzendoorn, and D. J. Broer, “Simulations with a dynamic reaction-diffusion model of the polymer grating preparation by patterned ultraviolet illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 8352-8356(2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

C.-Y. Chang, S.-Y. Yang, and M.-H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 355-361(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Fu, N. Kok, and A. Bryan, “Microfabrication of microlens array by focused ion beam technology,” Microelectron. Eng. 54, 211-221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly,” Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Optik (Jena)

F. T. O'Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production. Part 1: Background and experiments,” Optik (Jena) 113, 391-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Prepr.

C. de Witz and D. J. Broer, “Photo-embossing as a tool for creating complex surface relief structures,” Polym. Prepr. 44, 236-237 (2003).

Proc. SPIE

F. T. O'Neil, I. C. Rowsome, A. J. Carr, S. M. Daniels, M. R. Gleeson, J. V. Kelly, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Photo-embossed optical elements and microfluidic lens fabrications,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 445-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. Danzebrink and M. A. Aegerter, “Deposition of micropatterned coating using an ink-jet technique,” Thin Solid Films 351, 115-118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Witz, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Nano- and microstructuring of polymers,” in Handbook of Polymer Reaction Engineering, T. Meyer and J. Keurentjes, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), Vol. 2, Chap. 19.
[CrossRef]

K. Hermans, M. van Delden, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095022 (2008).

J. Thies, E. Currie, G. Meijers, J. Southwell, and C. Chawla, “High performance single layer anti-reflective coatings via wet UV curing technology,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35, 1174-1177 (2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of multilayer photoembossing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Shape of photoembossed microlenses for different exposure doses and (b) 3D profile of a microlens array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Effect of the exposure dose on the focal length and (b) corresponding focal spots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic representation and (b) confocal image of the optical path of a collimated light source through a single photoembossed microlens and (c) array of microlenses (exposure dose = 200 mJ cm 2 , developing time is 300 s at a temperature of 110 ° C ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Shape of photoembossed microlenses for different developing times and (b) developing temperatures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflection from the surface of a photoembossed microlens array with and without antireflection coating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning electron microscope image of OptoClear (DSM) antireflection coating.

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