Abstract

The Moon’s time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun’s known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely 3.32mvis and 1.7mvis, which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  8. “Leuchtdichte,” http://www.color-security.com/html/leuchtdichte.html.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, 3rd ed. (University of London Athlone Press, 1976).
  11. D. L. Crawford, “Photometry: terminology and units in the lighting and astronomical sciences,” Observatory 117, 14-18(1997).
  12. J. Conrad, “Getting the right exposure when photographing the Moon,” http://www.calphoto.com/moon.htm
  13. “Measuring instruments,”Konica Minolta Sensing Americas, Inc., 101 Williams Drive, Ramsey, N.J. 07446, USA, http://www.konicaminolta.com/sensingusa/products/light/luminance-meter/ls100-ls110/index.htm.
  14. M. Busch, “Easy Sky--your desktop planetarium,” V 4.0.08, Heppenheim, Germany (June 30th, 2003), http://www.easysky.de/eng/index.htm.
  15. “Key comparison--luminous intensity CCP3-K3.a1,” Metrologia 42, Technical Supplement 02001 (2005),
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  17. M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the Sun and Moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299-309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J. E. Westfall, “Photographic photometry of the total lunar eclipse of September 6, 1979,” Strolling Astron. 28, 116-119 (1980).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. C. Greier, MoonFlash v.1.01http://www.greier-greiner.at/hc/flash/MoonFlash/info.htm.
  32. R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biokl. Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. Sekiguchi, “Photometry of the lunar surface during lunar eclipses,” Moon Planets 23, 99-107 (1980).
  34. J. Hollan (jhollan@amper.ped.muni.cz), “Photometric overview of partial lunar eclipse, Sep 7, 2006,” http://amper.ped.muni.cz/light/luminance/lun_eclipse/2006/overview.htm
  35. O. S. Ugolnikov and I. A. Maslov, “Altitude and latitude distribution of atmospheric aerosol and water vapor from the narrow-band lunar eclipse photometry,” arXiv.org , arXiv:0706.0660 (24 April 2008); ougol@rambler.ru
  36. V. G. Fesenko, “The application of lunar eclipses for surveying the optical properties of the atmosphere,” Soviet Astron. AJ 14, 195-201 (1970).
  37. R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.
  39. N. Sekiguchi, “Abnormally dark lunar eclipse on December 30, 1982,” Moon Planets 29, 195-198 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

2006 (2)

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the Sun and Moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Möllmann and M. Vollmer, “Measurements and predictions of the illuminance during a solar eclipse,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 1299-1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

“Key comparison--luminous intensity CCP3-K3.a1,” Metrologia 42, Technical Supplement 02001 (2005),

2004 (1)

R. W. Schmude, Jr., “Photoelectric magnitude measurements of the lunar eclipses on May 16, 2003 and Oct. 28, 2004,” Ga. J. Sci. 62188-193 (2004).

2000 (1)

P. T. Landberg and V. Badescu, “The geometrical factor of spherical radiation sources,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. L. Crawford, “Photometry: terminology and units in the lighting and astronomical sciences,” Observatory 117, 14-18(1997).

1996 (1)

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, and M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490-499(1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. E. Schaefer, “Lunar eclipses that changed the world,” Sky Telesc. 84, 639-642 (1992).

1989 (1)

1983 (2)

R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sekiguchi, “Abnormally dark lunar eclipse on December 30, 1982,” Moon Planets 29, 195-198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

N. Sekiguchi, “Photometry of the lunar surface during lunar eclipses,” Moon Planets 23, 99-107 (1980).

J. E. Westfall, “Photographic photometry of the total lunar eclipse of September 6, 1979,” Strolling Astron. 28, 116-119 (1980).

1973 (1)

H. J. Schober and A. Schroll, “Photoelectric and visual observation of the total eclipse of the Moon of August 6, 1971,” Icarus 20,, 48-51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

V. G. Fesenko, “The application of lunar eclipses for surveying the optical properties of the atmosphere,” Soviet Astron. AJ 14, 195-201 (1970).

1969 (1)

R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biokl. Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, 3rd ed. (University of London Athlone Press, 1976).

Badescu, V.

P. T. Landberg and V. Badescu, “The geometrical factor of spherical radiation sources,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Barnes, J. E.

J. E. Barnes, E. Schmidt, and Y. A. Walter, “Precision photometry of the total lunar eclipse of Aug. 28, 2007,” to be submitted to Icarus.

Buratti, B. J.

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, and M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490-499(1996).
[CrossRef]

Busch, M.

M. Busch, “Easy Sky--your desktop planetarium,” V 4.0.08, Heppenheim, Germany (June 30th, 2003), http://www.easysky.de/eng/index.htm.

Conrad, J.

J. Conrad, “Getting the right exposure when photographing the Moon,” http://www.calphoto.com/moon.htm

Crawford, D. L.

D. L. Crawford, “Photometry: terminology and units in the lighting and astronomical sciences,” Observatory 117, 14-18(1997).

Davies, C.

R. W. Schmude, Jr., C. Davies, and W. Hallsworth, “Wideband photoelectric photometry of the Jan 20/21, 2000, total lunar eclipse,” in International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry Communication, No. 76 (IAPPP, 2000), 75-83.

de Carvalho Vital, H.

H. de Carvalho Vital, “Brightness of the total lunar eclipse of May 15-16, 2003,” REA/Brasil Report no. 11, http://www.geocities.com/lunissolar2003/

H. de Carvalho Vital, “Total lunar eclipse of March 03, 2007, observation report and comments,” http://www.geocities.com/lunissolar2003/Mar2007/Helios_Report_2007Mar03_Lunar_Eclipse.htm.

Deshler, T.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Dutton, E.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Espenak, F.

Eclipse predictions by F. Espenak, NASA/GSFC, “NASA eclipse Web site,” http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse.html.

Fesenko, V. G.

V. G. Fesenko, “The application of lunar eclipses for surveying the optical properties of the atmosphere,” Soviet Astron. AJ 14, 195-201 (1970).

Flanders, T.

T. Flanders, “Gazing upon Earth's shadow,” http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/home/6335642.html

Gedzelman, S. D.

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Simulating irradiance during lunar eclipses: the spherically symmetric case,” Appl. Opt. 47, H52-H61 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the Sun and Moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerharz, R.

R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biokl. Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Granslo, B. H.

B. H. Granslo “Observations of the 2001 January 9 total lunar eclipse,” http://www.astro.uio.no/~bgranslo/2001jan09.html

Greier, H. C.

H. C. Greier, MoonFlash v.1.01http://www.greier-greiner.at/hc/flash/MoonFlash/info.htm.

Hahn, D.

D. Hahn, “Strahlung und Photometrie,” in Bergmann-Schaefer Handbuch der Experimentalphysik, 6th ed, W. de Gruyter, ed., Vol. III of Optik (Berlin, 1974), pp. 583-637.

Hallsworth, W.

R. W. Schmude, Jr., C. Davies, and W. Hallsworth, “Wideband photoelectric photometry of the Jan 20/21, 2000, total lunar eclipse,” in International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry Communication, No. 76 (IAPPP, 2000), 75-83.

Hillier, J. K.

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, and M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490-499(1996).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Hollan, J.

J. Hollan (jhollan@amper.ped.muni.cz), “Photometric overview of partial lunar eclipse, Sep 7, 2006,” http://amper.ped.muni.cz/light/luminance/lun_eclipse/2006/overview.htm

Jäger, H.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Kasten, F.

Keen, R.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Keen, R. A.

R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landberg, P. T.

P. T. Landberg and V. Badescu, “The geometrical factor of spherical radiation sources,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Link, F.

F. Link, “Lunar eclipses,” in Z. Kopal, ed., Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, 1st ed. (Academic, New York 1962), pp. 161-229 [or in Z. Kopal, ed., Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Academic, 1972), Vol. 9, pp. 67-148].

Mallama, A.

A. Mallama, Eclipses, Atmospheres and Global Change (A. Mallama, 1996), contact Anthony_Mallama@raytheon.com; see http://www.amsmeteors.org/mallama/lunarecl/mags.html

Maslov, I. A.

O. S. Ugolnikov and I. A. Maslov, “Altitude and latitude distribution of atmospheric aerosol and water vapor from the narrow-band lunar eclipse photometry,” arXiv.org , arXiv:0706.0660 (24 April 2008); ougol@rambler.ru

Möllmann, K. P.

K. P. Möllmann and M. Vollmer, “Measurements and predictions of the illuminance during a solar eclipse,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 1299-1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, C.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Osborn, M.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

Pedrotti, F. L.

L. S. Pedrotti and F. L. Pedrotti, Optics and Vision (Prentice Hall, 1993).

Pedrotti, L. S.

L. S. Pedrotti and F. L. Pedrotti, Optics and Vision (Prentice Hall, 1993).

Ryer, A. D.

A. D. Ryer, Light Measurement Handbook (International Light, 1997).

Schaefer, B. E.

B. E. Schaefer, “Lunar eclipses that changed the world,” Sky Telesc. 84, 639-642 (1992).

Schlyter, P.

P. Schlyter, 4 March 2007 post in Science groupsrv.com, http://www.groupsrv.com/science/about214010.html www.groupsrv.com.

Schmidt, E.

J. E. Barnes, E. Schmidt, and Y. A. Walter, “Precision photometry of the total lunar eclipse of Aug. 28, 2007,” to be submitted to Icarus.

Schmude, R. W.

R. W. Schmude, Jr., “Photoelectric magnitude measurements of the lunar eclipses on May 16, 2003 and Oct. 28, 2004,” Ga. J. Sci. 62188-193 (2004).

R. W. Schmude, Jr., C. Davies, and W. Hallsworth, “Wideband photoelectric photometry of the Jan 20/21, 2000, total lunar eclipse,” in International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry Communication, No. 76 (IAPPP, 2000), 75-83.

Schober, H. J.

H. J. Schober and A. Schroll, “Photoelectric and visual observation of the total eclipse of the Moon of August 6, 1971,” Icarus 20,, 48-51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schroll, A.

H. J. Schober and A. Schroll, “Photoelectric and visual observation of the total eclipse of the Moon of August 6, 1971,” Icarus 20,, 48-51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, N.

N. Sekiguchi, “Abnormally dark lunar eclipse on December 30, 1982,” Moon Planets 29, 195-198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Sekiguchi, “Photometry of the lunar surface during lunar eclipses,” Moon Planets 23, 99-107 (1980).

Ugolnikov, O. S.

O. S. Ugolnikov and I. A. Maslov, “Altitude and latitude distribution of atmospheric aerosol and water vapor from the narrow-band lunar eclipse photometry,” arXiv.org , arXiv:0706.0660 (24 April 2008); ougol@rambler.ru

Vollmer, M.

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Simulating irradiance during lunar eclipses: the spherically symmetric case,” Appl. Opt. 47, H52-H61 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the Sun and Moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Möllmann and M. Vollmer, “Measurements and predictions of the illuminance during a solar eclipse,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 1299-1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walter, Y. A.

J. E. Barnes, E. Schmidt, and Y. A. Walter, “Precision photometry of the total lunar eclipse of Aug. 28, 2007,” to be submitted to Icarus.

Wang, M.

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, and M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490-499(1996).
[CrossRef]

Westfall, J. E.

J. E. Westfall, “Photographic photometry of the total lunar eclipse of September 6, 1979,” Strolling Astron. 28, 116-119 (1980).

Young, A. T.

F. Kasten and A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5723-5736(1989).

A. T. Young, Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, Calif. 92182, USA (personal communication, 2007).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biokl. Ser. A (1)

R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biokl. Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
[CrossRef]

arXiv.org (1)

O. S. Ugolnikov and I. A. Maslov, “Altitude and latitude distribution of atmospheric aerosol and water vapor from the narrow-band lunar eclipse photometry,” arXiv.org , arXiv:0706.0660 (24 April 2008); ougol@rambler.ru

Eur. J. Phys. (2)

K. P. Möllmann and M. Vollmer, “Measurements and predictions of the illuminance during a solar eclipse,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 1299-1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the Sun and Moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

P. T. Landberg and V. Badescu, “The geometrical factor of spherical radiation sources,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 816 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ga. J. Sci. (1)

R. W. Schmude, Jr., “Photoelectric magnitude measurements of the lunar eclipses on May 16, 2003 and Oct. 28, 2004,” Ga. J. Sci. 62188-193 (2004).

Icarus (2)

B. J. Buratti, J. K. Hillier, and M. Wang, “The lunar opposition surge: observations by Clementine,” Icarus 124, 490-499(1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Schober and A. Schroll, “Photoelectric and visual observation of the total eclipse of the Moon of August 6, 1971,” Icarus 20,, 48-51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

“Key comparison--luminous intensity CCP3-K3.a1,” Metrologia 42, Technical Supplement 02001 (2005),

Moon Planets (2)

N. Sekiguchi, “Photometry of the lunar surface during lunar eclipses,” Moon Planets 23, 99-107 (1980).

N. Sekiguchi, “Abnormally dark lunar eclipse on December 30, 1982,” Moon Planets 29, 195-198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Observatory (1)

D. L. Crawford, “Photometry: terminology and units in the lighting and astronomical sciences,” Observatory 117, 14-18(1997).

Science (1)

R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sky Telesc. (1)

B. E. Schaefer, “Lunar eclipses that changed the world,” Sky Telesc. 84, 639-642 (1992).

Soviet Astron. AJ (1)

V. G. Fesenko, “The application of lunar eclipses for surveying the optical properties of the atmosphere,” Soviet Astron. AJ 14, 195-201 (1970).

Strolling Astron. (1)

J. E. Westfall, “Photographic photometry of the total lunar eclipse of September 6, 1979,” Strolling Astron. 28, 116-119 (1980).

Other (22)

R. W. Schmude, Jr., C. Davies, and W. Hallsworth, “Wideband photoelectric photometry of the Jan 20/21, 2000, total lunar eclipse,” in International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry Communication, No. 76 (IAPPP, 2000), 75-83.

A. T. Young, Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, Calif. 92182, USA (personal communication, 2007).

B. H. Granslo “Observations of the 2001 January 9 total lunar eclipse,” http://www.astro.uio.no/~bgranslo/2001jan09.html

J. Conrad, “Getting the right exposure when photographing the Moon,” http://www.calphoto.com/moon.htm

“Measuring instruments,”Konica Minolta Sensing Americas, Inc., 101 Williams Drive, Ramsey, N.J. 07446, USA, http://www.konicaminolta.com/sensingusa/products/light/luminance-meter/ls100-ls110/index.htm.

M. Busch, “Easy Sky--your desktop planetarium,” V 4.0.08, Heppenheim, Germany (June 30th, 2003), http://www.easysky.de/eng/index.htm.

Eclipse predictions by F. Espenak, NASA/GSFC, “NASA eclipse Web site,” http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse.html.

F. Link, “Lunar eclipses,” in Z. Kopal, ed., Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, 1st ed. (Academic, New York 1962), pp. 161-229 [or in Z. Kopal, ed., Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Academic, 1972), Vol. 9, pp. 67-148].

A. D. Ryer, Light Measurement Handbook (International Light, 1997).

L. S. Pedrotti and F. L. Pedrotti, Optics and Vision (Prentice Hall, 1993).

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, 3rd ed. (University of London Athlone Press, 1976).

D. Hahn, “Strahlung und Photometrie,” in Bergmann-Schaefer Handbuch der Experimentalphysik, 6th ed, W. de Gruyter, ed., Vol. III of Optik (Berlin, 1974), pp. 583-637.

“Leuchtdichte,” http://www.color-security.com/html/leuchtdichte.html.

D. Hofmann, J. Barnes, E. Dutton, T. Deshler, H. Jäger, R. Keen, and M. Osborn, “Surface-based observations of volcanic emissions to the stratosphere,” in Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere, A. Robock and C. Oppenheimer, eds. (American Geophysical Union,, 2003), pp. 57-73.

J. E. Barnes, E. Schmidt, and Y. A. Walter, “Precision photometry of the total lunar eclipse of Aug. 28, 2007,” to be submitted to Icarus.

J. Hollan (jhollan@amper.ped.muni.cz), “Photometric overview of partial lunar eclipse, Sep 7, 2006,” http://amper.ped.muni.cz/light/luminance/lun_eclipse/2006/overview.htm

H. C. Greier, MoonFlash v.1.01http://www.greier-greiner.at/hc/flash/MoonFlash/info.htm.

H. de Carvalho Vital, “Brightness of the total lunar eclipse of May 15-16, 2003,” REA/Brasil Report no. 11, http://www.geocities.com/lunissolar2003/

T. Flanders, “Gazing upon Earth's shadow,” http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/home/6335642.html

P. Schlyter, 4 March 2007 post in Science groupsrv.com, http://www.groupsrv.com/science/about214010.html www.groupsrv.com.

H. de Carvalho Vital, “Total lunar eclipse of March 03, 2007, observation report and comments,” http://www.geocities.com/lunissolar2003/Mar2007/Helios_Report_2007Mar03_Lunar_Eclipse.htm.

A. Mallama, Eclipses, Atmospheres and Global Change (A. Mallama, 1996), contact Anthony_Mallama@raytheon.com; see http://www.amsmeteors.org/mallama/lunarecl/mags.html

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Log-linearity of the LS-110 luminance photometer’s scale for selected stars and planets (solid line, linear regression model; dashed line, same with unit brightness slope). Because these objects are essentially pointlike, the instrument’s readings Y are not luminances, but proportional to their luminous intensities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Air-mass-corrected brightness magnitudes of the 9 February 1990 total lunar eclipse. Vertical lines designate the onset or end of the penumbral (dashed), partial (thin solid), and total eclipse stages (thick solid lines); the open symbols were affected by haze and therefore not used for Fig. 6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Air-mass-corrected brightness magnitudes of the 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipse. The vertical lines are used in the same way as in Fig. 2. The dotted extrapolation of the light curve to the minimum brightness, missing from the measurements because of clouds, is based on a scaled rendition of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical normalized radiance (upper curve) distribution H ( x ) within umbra and penumbra as a function of relative angular position. The following parameters apply: ozone concentrations 300 Dobson units, aerosols with an average optical depth such that they scatter or absorb the same amount of light as does the molecular atmosphere, and cloud cover as well as topography are modeled by a geometrical barrier, corresponding to 1 km surface height (for details see [30]). The lower curve represents S ( x ) , i.e., the curve H ( x ) weighted by the eye sensitivity, accounting for typical brightness sensation of human observers; i.e., S ( x ) is suitable for estimating luminance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simplified geometry: the relative luminance within the umbra and penumbra is modeled by a disk plus a number of rings (here four) of certain width, each characterized by a constant normalized luminance (stepwise gray scale) of residual solar illumination. Four different positions of the Moon during the eclipse are shown (for details see text).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Standardized brightness magnitudes B m , std for two total lunar eclipses (open circles, 9 February 1990 eclipse; solid dots, 3 March 2007 eclipse) compared with the results of a model calculation (solid curve).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Main Parameters for the Measured Total Lunar Eclipses a

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Table 2 Photometric Results for Two Total Lunar Eclipses

Equations (15)

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E s L s = Ω s ( 1 Ω s 4 π ) cos θ ,
E s = L s Ω s ,
L m = M m π = 1 π C L s Ω s = C L s ( R s d ) 2 .
L m = Y m ( Δ / 2 ρ m ) 2 .
M ( z , Z ) = exp ( z / z 0 ) cos Z + 0.50752 × ( 96.07995 ° Z ) 1.6364 .
F ( Z , z , λ ) = exp { τ Mol ( λ ) [ M ( Z , z ) 1 ) ] } .
B m , 0 = 12.73 m vis L m , 0 = 3670 cd / m 2 .
B m , a = B m , 0 2.5 × log ( L m , a L m , 0 ) 5 × log ( ρ m ρ m , 0 ) .
L m , a L m , std = ( d d a ) 2 1 r s 2 ,
B m , std = B m , 0 2.5 × log ( L m , std L m , 0 ) = Eq. (9) B m , 0 2.5 × log ( L m , a L m , 0 ) 5 × log r s .
B m = 7.34 + 4.29 × U max .
I norm = p 1 S 1 + ( p 2 p 1 ) S 2 + ( p 3 p 2 ) S 3 + ( p 4 p 3 ) S 4 + ( p 5 p 4 ) S 5 + ( 1 p 6 ) S 6 .
I norm = n = 0 5 ( p n + 1 p n ) S n + 1 .
I norm = n = 0 N + 1 ( p n + 1 p n ) S n + 1 .
U = ρ U ( φ ρ m ) 2 ρ m = 1 2 ( 1 + ρ U φ ρ m ) .

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