Abstract

Irradiance and color during the total lunar eclipses of 2007 and 2008 are simulated using a ray tracing model that includes refraction, scattering by molecules, and observed or climatological distributions of aerosols, ozone, clouds, and topography around the terminator. Central portions of the umbra appear deep red for almost all eclipses due to preferential removal of short wavelengths in the spectrum of sunlight by scattering in the lower troposphere. The fringe of the umbra appears turquoise or blue due to selective removal of wavelengths around 600nm by the Chappuis absorption bands of ozone in the stratosphere. Asymmetric distributions of clouds and aerosols, particularly for the 2008 eclipse, produce minimum calculated irradiance up to 17  arc min from the umbra center, while high ozone content over the arctic makes the northern edge of the umbra deepest blue.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Link, “Lunar eclipses,” in Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, Z. Kopal, ed., 1st ed. (Academic, 1962), pp. 161-229, more recent mostly identical version in Z.Kopal, ed., Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Academic, 1972), Vol. 9, pp. 68-144.
  2. A. Mallama, Eclipses, Atmospheres and Global Change, self-published, 1996, contact Anthony_Mallama@raytheon.com
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Hernitschek, E. Schmidt, and M. Vollmer, “Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling,” Appl. Opt. 47, H62-H71 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. “Danjon scale for lunar eclipses,” http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/OH/Danjon.html
  7. WMO/GAW World Ozone and UV Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), “Environmental Canada, Ozone Maps,” http://exp-studies.tor.ec.gc.ca/e/ozone/Curr_allmap_g.htm
  8. http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html
  9. NASA Langley Research Center, “Atmospheric Science Data Center, MISR Data and Information: Data Products,” http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/.
  10. “MODIS Atmosphere: Aerosol,” http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
  11. D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Prospero and J. P. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change, and implications,” Science 302, 1024-1027 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. “CloudSat Data Processing Center,” http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/.
  14. W. B. Rossow and R. A. Schiffer, “Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2261-2286(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. “Photo Gallery: Total Lunar Eclipse, 2-20-2008,” http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/gallery/skyevents/15836532.html, photographer B. Johnson.

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. M. Prospero and J. P. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change, and implications,” Science 302, 1024-1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

W. B. Rossow and R. A. Schiffer, “Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2261-2286(1999).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gedzelman, S. D.

Gerharz, R.

R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hernitschek, N.

Keen, R. A.

R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamb, J. P.

J. M. Prospero and J. P. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change, and implications,” Science 302, 1024-1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, F.

F. Link, “Lunar eclipses,” in Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, Z. Kopal, ed., 1st ed. (Academic, 1962), pp. 161-229, more recent mostly identical version in Z.Kopal, ed., Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Academic, 1972), Vol. 9, pp. 68-144.

Mallama, A.

A. Mallama, Eclipses, Atmospheres and Global Change, self-published, 1996, contact Anthony_Mallama@raytheon.com

Mattis, I.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

J. M. Prospero and J. P. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change, and implications,” Science 302, 1024-1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossow, W. B.

W. B. Rossow and R. A. Schiffer, “Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2261-2286(1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiffer, R. A.

W. B. Rossow and R. A. Schiffer, “Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2261-2286(1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E.

Vollmer, M.

Wandinger, U.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. A (1)

R. Gerharz, “Photometric brightness asymmetry during a lunar eclipse,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. A 18, 221-226 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. B. Rossow and R. A. Schiffer, “Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2261-2286(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: Microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. M. Prospero and J. P. Lamb, “African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change, and implications,” Science 302, 1024-1027 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Keen, “Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses,” Science 222, 1011-1013 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

“Danjon scale for lunar eclipses,” http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/OH/Danjon.html

WMO/GAW World Ozone and UV Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC), “Environmental Canada, Ozone Maps,” http://exp-studies.tor.ec.gc.ca/e/ozone/Curr_allmap_g.htm

http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html

NASA Langley Research Center, “Atmospheric Science Data Center, MISR Data and Information: Data Products,” http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/.

“MODIS Atmosphere: Aerosol,” http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

“Photo Gallery: Total Lunar Eclipse, 2-20-2008,” http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/gallery/skyevents/15836532.html, photographer B. Johnson.

F. Link, “Lunar eclipses,” in Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, Z. Kopal, ed., 1st ed. (Academic, 1962), pp. 161-229, more recent mostly identical version in Z.Kopal, ed., Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Academic, 1972), Vol. 9, pp. 68-144.

A. Mallama, Eclipses, Atmospheres and Global Change, self-published, 1996, contact Anthony_Mallama@raytheon.com

“CloudSat Data Processing Center,” http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Irradiance spectra of eclipsed moonlight for points located at given distances in arc minutes from the center of the umbra as observed from Earth for typical atmospheric conditions (300 DU ozone, 1 km elevation, β = 2 ). The penumbra begins at about 42 arc min (third line from top).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CIE diagram (1931) showing the impact of ozone on the color sequence extending from the center to the outer edge of the penumbra for 0 DU (thin curve), 300 DU (middle curve), and 600 DU (thick curve with solid circles indicating points separated by 1.03   arc min starting at umbra center). The dashed contour lines represent the percentage of color saturation. The large hollow circles indicate the point just inside the border of the umbra. The achromatic white point is at x = y = 1 / 3 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Irradiance of moonlight relative to that of the uneclipsed Moon as a function of angular distance in minutes from umbra center. The top curve applies to a molecular atmosphere with no aerosols, ozone, or topography. The bottom two curves have turbidity β = 2 , ozone column content = 300 DU , and uniform topography 1 km high. The center and bottom curves have aerosol scale heights of 2.5 and 5.0 km , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral irradiance of eclipsed moonlight at the center (angular distance from center ϕ = 0 ) and near the fringe of the umbra ( ϕ = 40.3 ) due to aerosol layers with turbidity β = 1.5 centered at a height of 18 km for Ångstrom coefficients α = 1 , 0, and 1 as seen from Earth for 300 DU ozone and 0 km elevation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maps of ozone concentration for the 2007/03/03 and 2008/02/21 eclipses after http://exp-studies.tor.ec.gc.ca/e/ozone/Curr_allmap_g.htm. The thick black dotted lines represent the terminators at the peak of the eclipses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Global map of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for blue light ( λ = 446 nm ) for March 2007 and February 2007 after http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/PRODOCS/misr/level3/level3_CGAS_small.html. The thick white dotted lines are the terminators for the March 2007 and February 2008 eclipses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CloudSat images at 2325 UTC 3 March 2007 and 0409 UTC 21 February 2008 near eclipse maximum (after http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/.). The thick white dotted lines represent the terminator at the eclipse maxima. The colored line shows the satellites’ orbit. The cross sections with a vertical scale of 30 km show cloud reflectivity and topography at the bottom of each panel. More detailed views of each colored section are available from the authors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

EW and NS sections of calculated values of normalized irradiance through the umbra center for the total lunar eclipse of 3 March 2007.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated color image of umbra for conditions of eclipse of 3–4 March 2007 (left) and a photograph of the Moon at the edge of the umbra during the February 2008 eclipse by [16] (right).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CIE diagram (as in Fig. 2) of simulated colors of the NS section of the umbra through umbra center for the eclipse of 3–4 March 2007. The thick line indicates points north of the center. The circles are separated by 1.03   arc min .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

EW and NS sections of calculated values of normalized irradiance through the umbra center for the total lunar eclipse of 21 February 2008. Minimum irradiance for the EW section occurs about 17   arc min from the umbra center.

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