Abstract

Using 180° field-of-view (full-sky) imaging polarimetry, we measured the spatiotemporal change of the polarization of skylight during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. We present our observations here on the temporal variation of the celestial patterns of the degree p and angle α of linear polarization of the eclipsed sky measured in the red (650  nm), green (550  nm), and blue (450  nm) parts of the spectrum. We also report on the temporal and spectral change of the positions of neutral (unpolarized, p=0) points, and points with local minima or maxima of p of the eclipsed sky. Our results are compared with the observations performed by the same polarimetric technique during the total solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 in Hungary. Practically the same characteristics of celestial polarization were encountered during both eclipses. This shows that the observed polarization phenomena of the eclipsed sky may be general.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Piltschikoff, “Sur la polarisation du ciel pendant les éclipses du soleil,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 142, 1449 (1906).
  2. E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, “Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italian),” Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193-198 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Moore and C. R. N. Rao, “Polarization of the daytime sky during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 147-150 (1966).
  4. C. R. N. Rao, T. Takashima, and J. G. Moore, “Polarimetry of the daytime sky during solar eclipses,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 573-576 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. S. Dandekar and J. P. Turtle, “Day sky brightness and polarization during the total solar eclipse of 7 March 1970,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1220-1224 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. E. Miller and W. G. Fastie, “Skylight intensity, polarization and airglow measurements during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1541-1546 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. E. Shaw, “Sky brightness and polarization during the 1973 African eclipse,” Appl. Opt. 14, 388-394 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (Deepak, 1988).
  9. G. P. Können, “Skylight polarization during a total solar eclipse: a quantitative model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 601-608 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. North and M. J. Duggin, “Stokes vector imaging of the polarized sky-dome,” Appl. Opt. 36, 723-730 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6083-6094 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Liu and K. J. Voss, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. II. Experiment and data,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8753-8764 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Horváth, A. Barta, J. Gál, B. Suhai, and O. Haiman, “Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 543-559 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Horváth, I. Pomozi, and J. Gál, “Neutral points of skylight polarization observed during the total eclipse on 11 August 1999,” Appl. Opt. 42, 465-475 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Gerharz, “Appearance of the atmospheric scatter field during a solar eclipse,” J. Geophys. 42, 163-167 (1976).
  18. M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, Jr., “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, B. Suhai, A. Barta, and R. Wehner, “First observation of the fourth neutral polarization point in the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2085-2099 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

2004 (1)

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, Jr., “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1987 (1)

1976 (1)

R. Gerharz, “Appearance of the atmospheric scatter field during a solar eclipse,” J. Geophys. 42, 163-167 (1976).

1975 (1)

1972 (2)

C. R. N. Rao, T. Takashima, and J. G. Moore, “Polarimetry of the daytime sky during solar eclipses,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 573-576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Miller and W. G. Fastie, “Skylight intensity, polarization and airglow measurements during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1541-1546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1966 (1)

J. G. Moore and C. R. N. Rao, “Polarization of the daytime sky during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 147-150 (1966).

1961 (1)

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, “Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italian),” Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193-198 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1906 (1)

N. Piltschikoff, “Sur la polarisation du ciel pendant les éclipses du soleil,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 142, 1449 (1906).

Barta, A.

Bernáth, B.

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, Jr., “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bullrich, K.

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, “Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italian),” Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193-198 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (Deepak, 1988).

Dandekar, B. S.

de Bary, E.

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, “Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italian),” Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193-198 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. R.

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, Jr., “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duggin, M. J.

Fastie, W. G.

R. E. Miller and W. G. Fastie, “Skylight intensity, polarization and airglow measurements during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1541-1546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gál, J.

G. Horváth, I. Pomozi, and J. Gál, “Neutral points of skylight polarization observed during the total eclipse on 11 August 1999,” Appl. Opt. 42, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Horváth, A. Barta, J. Gál, B. Suhai, and O. Haiman, “Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 543-559 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerharz, R.

R. Gerharz, “Appearance of the atmospheric scatter field during a solar eclipse,” J. Geophys. 42, 163-167 (1976).

Haiman, O.

Horváth, G.

G. Horváth, I. Pomozi, and J. Gál, “Neutral points of skylight polarization observed during the total eclipse on 11 August 1999,” Appl. Opt. 42, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, B. Suhai, A. Barta, and R. Wehner, “First observation of the fourth neutral polarization point in the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2085-2099 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, A. Barta, J. Gál, B. Suhai, and O. Haiman, “Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 543-559 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Können, G. P.

Lee, R. L.

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, Jr., “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lorenz, D.

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, “Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italian),” Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193-198 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Rochow, V. B.

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. E.

R. E. Miller and W. G. Fastie, “Skylight intensity, polarization and airglow measurements during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1541-1546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. G.

C. R. N. Rao, T. Takashima, and J. G. Moore, “Polarimetry of the daytime sky during solar eclipses,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 573-576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Moore and C. R. N. Rao, “Polarization of the daytime sky during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 147-150 (1966).

North, J. A.

Piltschikoff, N.

N. Piltschikoff, “Sur la polarisation du ciel pendant les éclipses du soleil,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 142, 1449 (1906).

Pomozi, I.

G. Horváth, I. Pomozi, and J. Gál, “Neutral points of skylight polarization observed during the total eclipse on 11 August 1999,” Appl. Opt. 42, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. R. N.

C. R. N. Rao, T. Takashima, and J. G. Moore, “Polarimetry of the daytime sky during solar eclipses,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 573-576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Moore and C. R. N. Rao, “Polarization of the daytime sky during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 147-150 (1966).

Shaw, G. E.

Suhai, B.

Takashima, T.

C. R. N. Rao, T. Takashima, and J. G. Moore, “Polarimetry of the daytime sky during solar eclipses,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 573-576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Turtle, J. P.

Varjú, D.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Voss, K. J.

Wehner, R.

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, B. Suhai, A. Barta, and R. Wehner, “First observation of the fourth neutral polarization point in the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2085-2099 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

J. G. Moore and C. R. N. Rao, “Polarization of the daytime sky during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 147-150 (1966).

Appl. Opt. (7)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

N. Piltschikoff, “Sur la polarisation du ciel pendant les éclipses du soleil,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 142, 1449 (1906).

Geofis. Pura Appl. (1)

E. de Bary, K. Bullrich, and D. Lorenz, “Messungen der Himmelsstrahlung und deren Polarisationsgrad während der Sonnenfinsternis am 15.2.1961 in Viareggio (Italian),” Geofis. Pura Appl. 48, 193-198 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (2)

C. R. N. Rao, T. Takashima, and J. G. Moore, “Polarimetry of the daytime sky during solar eclipses,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 573-576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Miller and W. G. Fastie, “Skylight intensity, polarization and airglow measurements during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1541-1546 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. (1)

R. Gerharz, “Appearance of the atmospheric scatter field during a solar eclipse,” J. Geophys. 42, 163-167 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

New J. Phys. (1)

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, Jr., “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

I. Pomozi, J. Gál, G. Horváth, and R. Wehner, “Fine structure of the celestial polarization pattern and its temporal change during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 181-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (Deepak, 1988).

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Map of Turkey showing the path of the Moon's shadow (umbra) during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006. Our full-sky imaging polarimetric measurements were performed in the immediate vicinity of Side, the ancient maritime city on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Photograph and patterns of the degree of linear polarization p and angle of polarization α of skylight measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in the 550   nm spectral range during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. The parameters of the recordings of scenes 1–13 are listed in Table 2. East (west) is at left (right) rather than on the right (left) of the compass rose, because we are looking up through the celestial dome rather than down onto a map.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Patterns of p of skylight measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in the 650   nm , 550   nm , and 450   nm parts of the spectrum during the eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. The parameters of the recordings of scenes 1–13 are listed in Table 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Same as Fig. 3 but for the angle of polarization α of skylight.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Black dots represent the positions of the celestial points with p extrema in scenes 3–11 during the eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in the R, 650   nm , G, 550   nm , and B, 450   nm parts of the spectrum π 1 , π 2 , π 3 , local maxima of p; η 1 , η 2 , local minima of p; s, Sun; +, zenith; circle, horizon; diameter through the Sun, solar–antisolar meridian.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Same as Fig. 5 but here the dots represent the temporal and spectral changes of the positions of points π 1 , π 2 , π 3 , η 1 and η 2 measured in the different parts of the spectrum and represented on the same celestial map. The zenith is indicated by z and its position by +.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Change of p (left column) and α (right column) of skylight along a meridian passing through the celestial points π 1 , π 2 , and π 3 of scene 5 measured in the red, green, and blue parts of the spectrum (represented by red, green, and blue lines) during the eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. The horizontal axis shows the zenith angle φ (ranging from 90 ° to + 90 ° ); the vertical axis represents either the p or the α values. The continuous vertical lines at left show the zenith angles of points with maximum p.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) As Fig. 7 for the celestial points η 1 and η 2 of scene 5. The dashed vertical lines represent the zenith angles of points with minimum p.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Total Solar Eclipse on 29 March 2006 a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Recordings of the Full-Sky Imaging Polarimetric Measurements during the Solar Eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Degree of Linear Polarization p (%) Measured by Full-Sky Imaging Polarimetry in the Red (R, 650 nm), Green (G, 550 nm) and Blue (B, 450 nm) Parts of the Spectrum at the Celestial Points with p Extrema in Scene 3 of the Preeclipse and in Scenes 4–11 of Totality During the Solar Eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey a

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