Abstract

We report dual RF beam reception of an X band phased array antenna using a photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based delay network. Each incoming RF signal can be independently received, and the angle of arrival can be determined based on the delay time-dependent wavelength. Two RF signals with frequencies 8.4 and 12GHz impinge upon an X-band antenna array from 7.4° and 21.2°. These signals are detected, and the angle of arrival is determined with a very good degree of accuracy using PCF-based true-time delay. The total number of RF beams that can be simultaneously detected is limited by the hardware availability and the bandwidth of the wavelength differentiation capability of the system.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. A. Koepf, “Optical processor for phased-array antenna beam formation,” Proc. SPIE 477, 75-81 (1984).
  3. N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical time delay units for phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1440-1447(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Soref, “Optical dispersion technique for time-delay beam steering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7395-7397 (1992).
  5. R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. D. Esman and L. Goldberg, “Fiber optic true time delay array antenna feed system,” U.S. patent 6,337,660 (January 8, 2002).
  7. M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic true time steering of an ultrawideband receive array,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, and M. G. Parent, “Phased-array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1216-1218 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Moloney, C. Edge, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, “A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Gerome, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Design of dispersion-compensating fibers based on a dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2725-2727(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 375-377(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 375-377(2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, “A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177(2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic true time steering of an ultrawideband receive array,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, and M. G. Parent, “Phased-array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1216-1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Moloney, C. Edge, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical time delay units for phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1440-1447(1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. Soref, “Optical dispersion technique for time-delay beam steering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7395-7397 (1992).

R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. A. Koepf, “Optical processor for phased-array antenna beam formation,” Proc. SPIE 477, 75-81 (1984).

Auguste, J. L.

Bennion, I.

A. Moloney, C. Edge, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J. M.

Brost, G.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. Y.

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 375-377(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 375-377(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, “A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, “A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177(2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. G.

R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, J. L.

R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Edge, C.

A. Moloney, C. Edge, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic true time steering of an ultrawideband receive array,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, and M. G. Parent, “Phased-array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1216-1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman and L. Goldberg, “Fiber optic true time delay array antenna feed system,” U.S. patent 6,337,660 (January 8, 2002).

Feinleib, R. E.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic true time steering of an ultrawideband receive array,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, and M. G. Parent, “Phased-array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1216-1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gerome, F.

Gesell, L. H.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

R. D. Esman and L. Goldberg, “Fiber optic true time delay array antenna feed system,” U.S. patent 6,337,660 (January 8, 2002).

Howley, B.

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Koepf, G. A.

G. A. Koepf, “Optical processor for phased-array antenna beam formation,” Proc. SPIE 477, 75-81 (1984).

Lafuse, J. L.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, P. J.

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic true time steering of an ultrawideband receive array,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, A.

A. Moloney, C. Edge, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monsma, M. J.

R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Parent, M. G.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, and M. G. Parent, “Phased-array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1216-1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, T.

U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical time delay units for phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1440-1447(1994).
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Subbaraman, H.

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 375-377(2008).
[CrossRef]

Turpin, T. M.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, X. Chen, B. Howley, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Effects of thermal fluctuation on highly dispersive photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011108(2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. D. Esman, M. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, and D. G. Cooper, “Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Moloney, C. Edge, and I. Bennion, “Fiber grating time delay elements for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with a chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652-653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 375-377(2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “A wideband fiber optic true time steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, and M. G. Parent, “Phased-array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1216-1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, “Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structure X-band phased array antenna,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189(2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, “A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177(2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, and R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic true time steering of an ultrawideband receive array,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical time delay units for phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1440-1447(1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Jiang, Z. Shi, B. Howley, X. Chen, M. Y. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Delay time enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for wireless communications using 2-D X-band phased-array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, and T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” Proc. SPIE 2155, 194-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Koepf, “Optical processor for phased-array antenna beam formation,” Proc. SPIE 477, 75-81 (1984).

Other (1)

R. D. Esman and L. Goldberg, “Fiber optic true time delay array antenna feed system,” U.S. patent 6,337,660 (January 8, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the receiving mode with multiple incoming beams. DEMUX, demultiplexer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid curve shows the calculated steering angle of the beam as a function of wavelength. The dashed curve shows the measured dispersion coefficient of the PCF. The inset shows the X-band antenna array with an element spacing of 1.3 cm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup. (a) Photograph showing the RF reception and electro-optical conversion section of the overall setup. (b) Photograph showing the TTD lines and signal processing section of the overall setup. The output from the modulators in (a) are connected to the inputs of EDFAs in (b). (The RF sources and the transmitting horn antennas of the setup are not shown.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal power measured at the photodetector versus wavelength. The signal power peaks appear at 1547.72 nm for 8.4 and 12 GHz signals placed at 7.4 ° and at 1552.52 nm for 8.4 and 12 GHz signals placed at 21.2 ° .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = d . sin θ c ,
T delay , i = L i λ 0 λ D PCF ( λ ) d λ + ( L L i ) λ 0 λ D SMF ( λ ) d λ , i = 1 , 2 , 3 , N .
τ = ( L i L i + 1 ) . λ 0 λ [ D PCF ( λ ) D SMF ( λ ) ] . d λ , i = 1 , 2 , 3 N 1 ,

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