Abstract

We report an alternative medium of transparent upconverting colloid containing lanthanide ion doped NaYF4 nanocrystals for three-dimensional (3D) volumetric display. The colloids exhibit tunable upconversion luminescence with a wide spectrum of colors by adjusting the doping concentrations of the nanocrystals and the compositions of the colloids. Our preliminary experimental result indicates that an upconverting colloid-based 3D volumetric display using a convergent near infrared laser beam to induce a localized luminescent spot near the focus is technically feasible. Therefore arbitrary 3D objects can be created inside the upconverting colloid by use of computer controlled 3D scanning systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Sandrock, H. Scheife, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “High-power continuous-wave upconversion fiber laser at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 22, 808-810 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. L. Cushing, V. L. Kolesnichenko, and C. J. O'Connor, “Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles,” Chem. Rev. 104, 3893-3946 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Sullivan, “3-deep new displays render images you can almost reach out and touch,” IEEE Spectrum 42, 30-35 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. R. Hinklin, S. C. Rand, and R. M. Laine, “Transparent, polycrystalline upconverting nanoceramics: towards 3-D displays,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1270-1273 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Honda, T. Doumuki, A. Akella, L. Galambos, and L. Hesselink, “One-color one-beam pumping of Er3+-doped ZBLAN glasses for a three-dimensional two-step excitation display,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1108-1110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Miyazaki, M. Lasher, and Y. Fainman, “Fluorescent volumetric display excited by a single infrared beam,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5281-5285 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176-2179 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Feldmann, M. Roming, and K. Trampert, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale CaF2 and CaF2: Ce, Tb,” Small 2, 1248-1250 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7732-7735 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4526-4528 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Xiao, R. Serna, F. Xu, and C. N. Afonso, “Critical separation for efficient Tm3+-Tm3+ energy transfer evidenced in nanostructured Tm3+: Al2O3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 33, 608-610(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Kerle, The Scattering of Light (Academic, 1969).
  20. D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed. (CRC Press, 2003).

2008 (2)

T. R. Hinklin, S. C. Rand, and R. M. Laine, “Transparent, polycrystalline upconverting nanoceramics: towards 3-D displays,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1270-1273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, F. Xu, and C. N. Afonso, “Critical separation for efficient Tm3+-Tm3+ energy transfer evidenced in nanostructured Tm3+: Al2O3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 33, 608-610(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Feldmann, M. Roming, and K. Trampert, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale CaF2 and CaF2: Ce, Tb,” Small 2, 1248-1250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7732-7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

D. Miyazaki, M. Lasher, and Y. Fainman, “Fluorescent volumetric display excited by a single infrared beam,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5281-5285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sullivan, “3-deep new displays render images you can almost reach out and touch,” IEEE Spectrum 42, 30-35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Cushing, V. L. Kolesnichenko, and C. J. O'Connor, “Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles,” Chem. Rev. 104, 3893-3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176-2179 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4526-4528 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

Akella, A.

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biner, D.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cushing, B. L.

B. L. Cushing, V. L. Kolesnichenko, and C. J. O'Connor, “Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles,” Chem. Rev. 104, 3893-3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Doumuki, T.

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Feldmann, C.

C. Feldmann, M. Roming, and K. Trampert, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale CaF2 and CaF2: Ce, Tb,” Small 2, 1248-1250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galambos, L.

Gerner, P.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heer, S.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Heumann, E.

Hinklin, T. R.

T. R. Hinklin, S. C. Rand, and R. M. Laine, “Transparent, polycrystalline upconverting nanoceramics: towards 3-D displays,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1270-1273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

Huber, G.

Kerle, M.

M. Kerle, The Scattering of Light (Academic, 1969).

Kolesnichenko, V. L.

B. L. Cushing, V. L. Kolesnichenko, and C. J. O'Connor, “Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles,” Chem. Rev. 104, 3893-3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kömpe, K.

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laine, R. M.

T. R. Hinklin, S. C. Rand, and R. M. Laine, “Transparent, polycrystalline upconverting nanoceramics: towards 3-D displays,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1270-1273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lasher, M.

Li, Y.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7732-7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed. (CRC Press, 2003).

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, D.

D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4526-4528 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, D.

O'Connor, C. J.

B. L. Cushing, V. L. Kolesnichenko, and C. J. O'Connor, “Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles,” Chem. Rev. 104, 3893-3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raltson, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

T. R. Hinklin, S. C. Rand, and R. M. Laine, “Transparent, polycrystalline upconverting nanoceramics: towards 3-D displays,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1270-1273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, C.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roming, M.

C. Feldmann, M. Roming, and K. Trampert, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale CaF2 and CaF2: Ce, Tb,” Small 2, 1248-1250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandrock, T.

Scheife, H.

Serna, R.

Somesfalean, G.

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “3-deep new displays render images you can almost reach out and touch,” IEEE Spectrum 42, 30-35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176-2179 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, K.

C. Feldmann, M. Roming, and K. Trampert, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale CaF2 and CaF2: Ce, Tb,” Small 2, 1248-1250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176-2179 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, Z.

Xu, F.

Zhang, Y.

Z. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7732-7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, J.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. Güdel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolor upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102-2105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hinklin, S. C. Rand, and R. M. Laine, “Transparent, polycrystalline upconverting nanoceramics: towards 3-D displays,” Adv. Mater. 20, 1270-1273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

Z. Li and Y. Zhang, “Monodisperse silica-coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone/NaYF4 nanocrystals with multicolor upconversion fluorescence emission,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7732-7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4526-4528 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, Y. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. Wang, “Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Cushing, V. L. Kolesnichenko, and C. J. O'Connor, “Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles,” Chem. Rev. 104, 3893-3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

A. Sullivan, “3-deep new displays render images you can almost reach out and touch,” IEEE Spectrum 42, 30-35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kramer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Gudel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater. 27, 1111-1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298, 2176-2179 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

C. Feldmann, M. Roming, and K. Trampert, “Polyol-mediated synthesis of nanoscale CaF2 and CaF2: Ce, Tb,” Small 2, 1248-1250 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Kerle, The Scattering of Light (Academic, 1969).

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed. (CRC Press, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Typical TEM image and (b) XRD pattern of the NaYF 4 nanocrystals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic energy level diagram and upconversion mechanisms of Yb 3 + - Er 3 + and Yb 3 + - Tm 3 + systems. The solid, dotted, curved, and colored arrows represent excitation, multiphonon relaxation, energy transfer, and emission process, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upconversion emission of colloids containing different nanocrystals: (a)  NaYF 4 :   Yb , Er, (b)  NaYF 4 :     Yb , Tm, (c) colloidal mixtures of nanocrystals showing cyan, purple, and white emission, (d) CIE coordinates of the upconversion emitted lights, and (e) photographs of the colloids upon excitation by a 980 nm laser beam ( 100 mW ). The compositions of each nanocrystal are given above the corresponding emission spectrum. The emission spectra numbered 1–8 in (a)–(c) correspond to the CIE coordinates presented in (d) and the photographs in (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of the colloidal dispersions of NaYF 4 :     Yb , Er nanocrystals in different solvents of water, EG, and DMF in quartz vessels of 0.5 × 1 × 4 cm 3 . The insert shows the corresponding photographs of the colloids.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic illustration of the 3D volumetric colloid display pumping by a focused NIR laser beam, (b) a photograph of localized visible green luminescence inside the colloid containing NaYF 4 :   Yb , Er nanocrystals pumped by a 980 nm diode laser of 50 mW , and (c) NIR photographs taken with a filter, showing NIR light path due to scattering by nanoparticles.

Equations (1)

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σ p 2 / 3 N V k 4 r 3 ( n Δ n ) 2 ,

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