Abstract

Turbulence properties of communication links (optical and microwave) in terms of log-amplitude variance are studied on the basis of a three-layer model of refractive index fluctuation spectrum in the free atmosphere. We suggest a model of turbulence spectra (Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov) changing with altitude on the basis of obtained experimental and theoretical data for turbulence profile in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Nauka, 1967).
  2. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 2 (Academic, 1978).
  3. J. W. Strohbehn, “Line-of-sight wave propagation through the turbulent atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 56, 1301-1318(1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669-1692 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
  7. J. R. Kerr, “Experiments on turbulence characteristics and multiwavelength scintillation phenomena,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1040-1049 (1972).
  8. R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Measurements of atmospheric turbulence relevant to optical propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 826-830 (1970).
  9. E. Vilar and J. Haddon, “Measurement and modeling of scintillation intensity to estimate turbulence parameters in an Earth-space path,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-32, 340-346 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. S. Gurvich and M. S. Belen'kii, “Influence of stratospheric turbulence on infrared imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2517-2522 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Belen'kii, “Influence of stratospheric turbulence on infrared imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2517-2522 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Dalaudier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and radar measurements of temperature fluctuation spectra: a puzzling results,” Radio Sci. 24, 311-324(1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Daludier and C. Sidi, “Direct evidence of sheets in the atmospheric temperature field,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 237-248 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Luce, F. Daludier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and VHF oblique radar measurements of refractive index spectra: a new successful attempt,” Radio Sci. 31, 1487-1500 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. R. Beland, “Some aspects of propagation through weak isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2375, 6-16(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, “Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Behavior of structure function of refraction coefficients in different turbulent fields,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6151-6156 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).
  23. E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Turbulence strength parameter in laboratory and natural optical experiments in non-Kolmogorov cases,” Opt. Commun. 242, 333-338(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Changes in modulation transfer function and optical resolution in helical turbulent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1774-1778 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2421-2433 (1973).
  26. R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. W. McMillan, R. A. Bohlander, and W. J. Baldygo, Jr., “Millimeter-wave atmospheric turbulence measurements: instrumentation, selected results, and system effects,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 18, 233-258 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Andreas, “The refractive index structure parameter, Cn2, for a year over the frozen Beaufort Sea,” Radio Sci. 24, 667-679 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).

2004 (2)

E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Turbulence strength parameter in laboratory and natural optical experiments in non-Kolmogorov cases,” Opt. Commun. 242, 333-338(2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Behavior of structure function of refraction coefficients in different turbulent fields,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6151-6156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. W. McMillan, R. A. Bohlander, and W. J. Baldygo, Jr., “Millimeter-wave atmospheric turbulence measurements: instrumentation, selected results, and system effects,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 18, 233-258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Luce, F. Daludier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and VHF oblique radar measurements of refractive index spectra: a new successful attempt,” Radio Sci. 31, 1487-1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

R. R. Beland, “Some aspects of propagation through weak isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2375, 6-16(1995).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, “Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gurvich and M. S. Belen'kii, “Influence of stratospheric turbulence on infrared imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2517-2522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, “Influence of stratospheric turbulence on infrared imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2517-2522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Daludier and C. Sidi, “Direct evidence of sheets in the atmospheric temperature field,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 237-248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

F. Dalaudier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and radar measurements of temperature fluctuation spectra: a puzzling results,” Radio Sci. 24, 311-324(1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Andreas, “The refractive index structure parameter, Cn2, for a year over the frozen Beaufort Sea,” Radio Sci. 24, 667-679 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

E. Vilar and J. Haddon, “Measurement and modeling of scintillation intensity to estimate turbulence parameters in an Earth-space path,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-32, 340-346 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669-1692 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1970 (2)

R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Measurements of atmospheric turbulence relevant to optical propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 826-830 (1970).

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. W. Strohbehn, “Line-of-sight wave propagation through the turbulent atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 56, 1301-1318(1968).
[CrossRef]

Andreas, E.

E. Andreas, “The refractive index structure parameter, Cn2, for a year over the frozen Beaufort Sea,” Radio Sci. 24, 667-679 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Baldygo, W. J.

R. W. McMillan, R. A. Bohlander, and W. J. Baldygo, Jr., “Millimeter-wave atmospheric turbulence measurements: instrumentation, selected results, and system effects,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 18, 233-258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barchers, J. D.

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beland, R. R.

R. R. Beland, “Some aspects of propagation through weak isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2375, 6-16(1995).
[CrossRef]

Belen'kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gurvich and M. S. Belen'kii, “Influence of stratospheric turbulence on infrared imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2517-2522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, “Influence of stratospheric turbulence on infrared imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2517-2522 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bohlander, R. A.

R. W. McMillan, R. A. Bohlander, and W. J. Baldygo, Jr., “Millimeter-wave atmospheric turbulence measurements: instrumentation, selected results, and system effects,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 18, 233-258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Branover, H.

E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).

Brown, J. M.

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Measurements of atmospheric turbulence relevant to optical propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 826-830 (1970).

Crochet, M.

H. Luce, F. Daludier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and VHF oblique radar measurements of refractive index spectra: a new successful attempt,” Radio Sci. 31, 1487-1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crochet, M.

F. Dalaudier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and radar measurements of temperature fluctuation spectra: a puzzling results,” Radio Sci. 24, 311-324(1989).
[CrossRef]

Dalaudier, F.

F. Dalaudier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and radar measurements of temperature fluctuation spectra: a puzzling results,” Radio Sci. 24, 311-324(1989).
[CrossRef]

Daludier, F.

H. Luce, F. Daludier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and VHF oblique radar measurements of refractive index spectra: a new successful attempt,” Radio Sci. 31, 1487-1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Daludier and C. Sidi, “Direct evidence of sheets in the atmospheric temperature field,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 237-248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669-1692 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ferrero, V.

I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golbraikh, E.

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).

E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Behavior of structure function of refraction coefficients in different turbulent fields,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6151-6156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Turbulence strength parameter in laboratory and natural optical experiments in non-Kolmogorov cases,” Opt. Commun. 242, 333-338(2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Changes in modulation transfer function and optical resolution in helical turbulent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1774-1778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gurvich, A. S.

Haddon, J.

E. Vilar and J. Haddon, “Measurement and modeling of scintillation intensity to estimate turbulence parameters in an Earth-space path,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-32, 340-346 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. J.

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 2 (Academic, 1978).

Karis, S. J.

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. R.

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

Kopeika, N.

Kopeika, N. S.

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).

Kupershmidt, I.

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. S.

R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, “Measurements of atmospheric turbulence relevant to optical propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 826-830 (1970).

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Luce, H.

H. Luce, F. Daludier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and VHF oblique radar measurements of refractive index spectra: a new successful attempt,” Radio Sci. 31, 1487-1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, R. W.

R. W. McMillan, R. A. Bohlander, and W. J. Baldygo, Jr., “Millimeter-wave atmospheric turbulence measurements: instrumentation, selected results, and system effects,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 18, 233-258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ochs, G. R.

Osmon, C. L.

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Priestley, J. T.

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roggemann, M. C.

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, “Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. P.

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shtemler, Y.

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sidi, C.

H. Luce, F. Daludier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and VHF oblique radar measurements of refractive index spectra: a new successful attempt,” Radio Sci. 31, 1487-1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Daludier and C. Sidi, “Direct evidence of sheets in the atmospheric temperature field,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 237-248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Dalaudier, M. Crochet, and C. Sidi, “Direct comparison between in situ and radar measurements of temperature fluctuation spectra: a puzzling results,” Radio Sci. 24, 311-324(1989).
[CrossRef]

Stribling, B. E.

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, “Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strohbehn, J. W.

R. S. Lawrence and J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523-1545 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, “Line-of-sight wave propagation through the turbulent atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 56, 1301-1318(1968).
[CrossRef]

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Nauka, 1967).

Toselli, I.

I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
[CrossRef]

Vilar, E.

E. Vilar and J. Haddon, “Measurement and modeling of scintillation intensity to estimate turbulence parameters in an Earth-space path,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-32, 340-346 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Virtser, A.

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. M.

B. E. Stribling, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, “Optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 181-196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zilberman, A.

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Res. (1)

A. Zilberman, E. Golbraikh, N. S. Kopeika, A. Virtser, I. Kupershmidt, and Y. Shtemler, “Lidar study of aerosol turbulence characteristics in the troposphere: Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Atmos. Res. 88, 66-77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

E. Vilar and J. Haddon, “Measurement and modeling of scintillation intensity to estimate turbulence parameters in an Earth-space path,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-32, 340-346 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

R. J. Hill, R. A. Bohlander, S. F. Clifford, R. W. McMillan, J. T. Priestley, and W. P. Schoenfeld, “Turbulence-induced millimeter-wave scintillation compared with micrometeorological measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 330-342 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

R. W. McMillan, R. A. Bohlander, and W. J. Baldygo, Jr., “Millimeter-wave atmospheric turbulence measurements: instrumentation, selected results, and system effects,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 18, 233-258 (1997).
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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

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E. Golbraikh, H. Branover, N. S. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, “Non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence and optical signal propagation,” Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 13, 297-301(2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Golbraikh and N. Kopeika, “Turbulence strength parameter in laboratory and natural optical experiments in non-Kolmogorov cases,” Opt. Commun. 242, 333-338(2004).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

I. Toselli, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and V. Ferrero, “Free-space optical system performance for laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence,” Opt. Eng. 47, 026003(2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (3)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

M. S. Belen'kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Experimental study of the effect of non-Kolmogorov stratospheric turbulence on star image motion,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 113-123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen'kii, J. D. Barchers, S. J. Karis, C. L. Osmon, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, “Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 396-406 (1999).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Power law exponent α ( z ) of the refractive index spectrum as a function of altitude for different b 1 and b 2 . b 1 = 8 and b 2 = 10 for solid curve; and b 1 = 15 and b 2 = 20 for dashed curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure parameter β ( z ) as a function of altitude calculated on the basis of the H–V 5 / 7 turbulence model for pure helical turbulence and different wave bands: K a band 32 GHz (dash-dot) and λ = 1.55 μm (dash).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

β ( z ) as a function of altitude for three-level model with b 1 = 8 and b 2 = 10 calculated for λ = 1.55 μm (dash) and 32 GHz (dash-dot). The solid curve corresponds to the H–V 5 / 7 model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log-amplitude variance as a function of α for Earth–space propagation: downlink (solid curve) and uplink (dashed curve). λ = 1.55 μm and angle from zenith φ = 0 for the H–V 5 / 7 turbulence model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Log-amplitude variance as a function of distance for different models: (a) uplink propagation (spherical wave) and (b) downlink propagation (plane wave). Three-layer (dash), two-layer (dash-dot), and O–K one-layer (solid). λ = 1.55 μm and angle from zenith φ = 0 for the H–V 5 / 7 turbulence model.

Equations (17)

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Φ n ( K , α ) = A ( α ) · β ( z ) · K - α ,
A ( α ) = Γ ( α - 1 ) 4 π 2 sin [ ( α - 3 ) π 2 ] , 3 < α < 5 ,
α ( z ) = α 1 1 + ( z / H 1 ) b 1 + α 2 · ( z / H 1 ) b 1 1 + ( z / H 1 ) b 1 · 1 1 + ( z / H 2 ) b 2 + α 3 · ( z / H 2 ) b 2 1 + ( z / H 2 ) b 2 ,
C X ( L , ρ 1 , ρ 2 ) = X ( L , ρ 1 ) X ( L , ρ 2 ) ,
C X ( L , ρ ) = 4 π 2 k 2 A ( α ) 0 L C n 2 ( z ) d z 0 d K K 1 - α J 0 ( b K ρ ) sin 2 [ b K 2 ( L - z ) 2 k ] ,
σ X 2 = 0.56 ( sec φ ) 11 6 k 7 6 0 L C n 2 ( z ) ( z ) 5 6 d z , at     L 0 ( λ L ) 1 / 2 l 0 ,
σ X 2 = B ( α ) ( sec φ ) α 2 A ( α ) k 6 - α 2 0 L β ( z ) ( L - z ) α - 2 2 d z 3 < α < 5 ,
σ X 2 = B ( α ) ( sec φ ) α 2 A ( α ) k 6 - α 2 0 L β ( z ) ( z L ) α - 2 2 ( L - z ) α - 2 2 d z 3 < α < 5 ,
B ( α ) = - π 3 1 2 Γ ( α / 2 ) cos ( π α / 4 ) , L 0 > ( λ L ) 1 / 2 > l 0 .
σ X 2 = 2 α B ( α ) A ( α ) k 6 - α 2 β L α 2 , 3 < α < 5 ( plane wave ) ,
σ X 2 = B ( α ) · Γ ( α / 2 ) Γ ( α / 2 ) Γ ( α ) A ( α ) k 6 - α 2 β L α 2 , 3 < α < 5 ( spherical wave ) .
β = A ( 11 / 3 ) A ( α ) C n 2 K n α - 11 / 3 .
β = A ( 11 / 3 ) A ( α ) C n 2 ( k / L ) α - 11 / 3 ,
σ X 2 = 2 α B ( α ) A ( 11 / 3 ) k 7 6 C n 2 L 11 6 , 3 < α < 5 ( plane wave ) ,
σ X 2 = B ( α ) · Γ ( α / 2 ) Γ ( α / 2 ) Γ ( α ) A ( 11 / 3 ) k 7 6 C n 2 L 11 6 , 3 < α < 5 ( spherical wave ) .
σ X 2 = B ( α ) ( sec φ ) α 2 A ( 11 / 3 ) k 7 6 0 L C n 2 ( z ) z 5 6 d z , 3 < α < 5.
σ X 2 = B ( α ) ( sec φ ) α 2 A ( 11 / 3 ) k 7 6 0 L C n 2 ( z ) ( 1 - z L ) α - 2 2 z 5 6 d z , 3 < α < 5.

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