Abstract

A single-mode fiber with plano–convex silicon microlens is proposed for butt-coupling between single-mode fibers and high-index-contrast waveguides with fine mode-field diameter. The lensed fiber has two specific features, high focusing power, and null working distance. The theoretical focus-spot diameter at the endface of the lensed fiber is calculated to be as small as 0.56μm at a wavelength 1.55μm. A simple fabrication method for the lensed fiber employing chemical etching and rf-sputtering is presented. Experiments showed that the mode-field-diameter of a single-mode fiber was successfully contracted from 10.5 to 1.3μm with the lensed fiber.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  4. H. M. Presby, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” in Optical Fiber Conference 1992 (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 408-411 .
  5. K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Shiraishi and C. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot size converter using a hemicylindrical GRIN-slab tip with high-index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3821-3826 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1974 (1)

Benner, A. F.

Besnard, P.

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

Caledec, L.

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chanclou, P.

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. A.

Foresi, J. S.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gautreau, O.

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guignard, C.

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hitomi, T.

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ikedo, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, N.

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Kimering, L. C.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, K.

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muro, K.

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ohishi, I.

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, A.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oyama, N.

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby, A. F. Benner, and C. A. Edwards, “Laser micromachining of efficient fiber microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2692-2695 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Presby, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” in Optical Fiber Conference 1992 (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 408-411 .

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi and C. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot size converter using a hemicylindrical GRIN-slab tip with high-index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3821-3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Standley, R. D.

Steinmeyer, G.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suga, S.

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thual, M.

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi and C. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot size converter using a hemicylindrical GRIN-slab tip with high-index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3821-3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Umetsu, M.

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Watanabe, K.

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Yoda, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Thual, P. Chanclou, O. Gautreau, L. Caledec, C. Guignard, and P. Besnard, “Appropriate micro-lens to improve coupling between laser diodes and singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

For example, B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimering, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. Shiraishi, N. Oyama, K. Matsumura, I. Ohishi, and S. Suga, “A fiber lens with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, N. Kawasaki, H. Yoda, K. Watanabe, M. Umetsu, T. Hitomi, and K. Muro, “High-index-layer coating on a lensed fiber endface for enhanced focusing power,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

K. Shiraishi and C. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot size converter using a hemicylindrical GRIN-slab tip with high-index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3821-3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. M. Presby, “Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses,” in Optical Fiber Conference 1992 (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 408-411 .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coupling schemes utilizing (a) conventional convex and (b) proposed plano–convex lensed fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structural parameters of the new lensed fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated intensity and equiphase distribution (a) along the silicon microlens and (b) at the focal plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated electric-field distribution in the vicinity of the input end of the waveguide and (b) coupling losses as a function of the gap for different refractive indexes of materials filling the gap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fabrication process for the lensed fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photomicrograph of the longitudinal cross section of the fabricated lensed fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured near-field intensity distribution of the lensed fiber with and without the microlens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of the silicon-wire waveguide with a spot-size converter used for measurements of the coupling losses between the lensed fibers and the waveguide.

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