Abstract

We present a method for the creation of optical vortices by using a deformable mirror. Optical vortices of integer and fractional charge were successfully generated at a wavelength of 633nm and observed in the far field (2000mm). The obtained intensity patterns proved to be in agreement with the theoretical predictions on integer and fractional charge optical vortices. Interference patterns between the created optical vortex carrying beams and a reference plane wave were also produced to verify and confirm the existence of the phase singularities.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  24. S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Jonathan Leach, Eric Yao, and Miles J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71-78 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

R. Čelechovský and Z. Bouchal, “Optical implementation of the vortex information channel,” New J. Phys. 9, 328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

C. S. Guo, D. M. Xue, Y. J. Han, and J. Ding, “Optimal phase steps of multi-level spiral phase plates,” Opt. Commun. 268, 235-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, and H. Wang, “High-power efficient multiple optical vortices in a single beam generated by a kinoform-type spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1153-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lin, X. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Synthesis of multiple collinear helical modes generated by a phase-only element,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1214-1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (9)

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovsky, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6, 131-145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan Leach, Eric Yao, and Miles J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, “Optical vortices evolving from helicoidal integer and fractional phase steps,” J. Opt. A 6, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rotschild, S. Zommer, S. Moed, O. Hershcovitz, and S. G. Lipson, “Adjustable spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2397-2399 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas'ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. V. Vasnetsov, I. G. Marienko, and M. S. Soskin, “Self-reconstruction of an optical vortex,” JETP Lett. 71, 130-133(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett, “Performance of cylindrical lens mode converter for producing Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Opt. Commun. 159, 13-18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2485-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119, 604-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

1981 (1)

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, “Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 1789-1797 (1981).

Ahluwalia, B. P. S.

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, and H. Wang, “High-power efficient multiple optical vortices in a single beam generated by a kinoform-type spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1153-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

N. B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2485-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Almazov, A. A.

Baranova, N. B.

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, “Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 1789-1797 (1981).

Barnett, S.

Basistiy, V.

V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119, 604-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, “Optical vortices evolving from helicoidal integer and fractional phase steps,” J. Opt. A 6, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouchal, Z.

R. Čelechovský and Z. Bouchal, “Optical implementation of the vortex information channel,” New J. Phys. 9, 328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovsky, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6, 131-145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burge, R. E.

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, X. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Synthesis of multiple collinear helical modes generated by a phase-only element,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1214-1218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Celechovsky, R.

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovsky, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6, 131-145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Celechovský, R.

R. Čelechovský and Z. Bouchal, “Optical implementation of the vortex information channel,” New J. Phys. 9, 328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, and H. Wang, “High-power efficient multiple optical vortices in a single beam generated by a kinoform-type spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1153-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Modulated optical vortices,” Opt. Lett. 28, 872-874 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Applications of spatial light modulators in atom optics,” Opt. Express 11, 158-166 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

C. S. Guo, D. M. Xue, Y. J. Han, and J. Ding, “Optimal phase steps of multi-level spiral phase plates,” Opt. Commun. 268, 235-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doble, N.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elfstrom, H.

Eliel, E. R.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Freegarde, T.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gbur, G.

Ghai, D. Pal

Gherardi, D. M.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Modulated optical vortices,” Opt. Lett. 28, 872-874 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C. S.

C. S. Guo, D. M. Xue, Y. J. Han, and J. Ding, “Optimal phase steps of multi-level spiral phase plates,” Opt. Commun. 268, 235-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. J.

C. S. Guo, D. M. Xue, Y. J. Han, and J. Ding, “Optimal phase steps of multi-level spiral phase plates,” Opt. Commun. 268, 235-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Helmbrecht, M. A.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hershcovitz, O.

Izdebskaya, Y.

Juneau, T.

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khonina, S. N.

Kloosterboer, J. G.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, V. V.

Leach, Jonathan

Jonathan Leach, Eric Yao, and Miles J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. M.

W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Lipson, S. G.

Livesey, J.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marienko, I. G.

M. V. Vasnetsov, I. G. Marienko, and M. S. Soskin, “Self-reconstruction of an optical vortex,” JETP Lett. 71, 130-133(2000).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R.

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Applications of spatial light modulators in atom optics,” Opt. Express 11, 158-166 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moed, S.

Moh, K. J.

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett, “Performance of cylindrical lens mode converter for producing Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Opt. Commun. 159, 13-18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2485-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, Miles J.

Jonathan Leach, Eric Yao, and Miles J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pas'ko, V.

Pas'ko, V. A.

V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson, “Atmospheric turbulence and orbital angular momentum of single photons for optical communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, G. D. P.

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

Scipioni, M.

M. Scipioni, “Propagation of optical vortices through fog,” M.S. thesis (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2004).

Senthilkumaran, P.

Shvedov, V.

Sibbett, W.

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[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

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V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
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Spalding,

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S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
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V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
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[CrossRef]

V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119, 604-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

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S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Volyar, A.

Wang, H.

White, A. G.

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S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Production and characterization of spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 43, 688-694 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. S. Guo, D. M. Xue, Y. J. Han, and J. Ding, “Optimal phase steps of multi-level spiral phase plates,” Opt. Commun. 268, 235-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Jonathan Leach, Eric Yao, and Miles J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

Yuan, X. C.

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, and H. Wang, “High-power efficient multiple optical vortices in a single beam generated by a kinoform-type spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1153-1161 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, “Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 1789-1797 (1981).

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X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, and H. Wang, “High-power efficient multiple optical vortices in a single beam generated by a kinoform-type spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1153-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zommer, S.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. C. Yuan, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, S. H. Tao, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, J. Bu, and R. E. Burge, “Wavelength-scalable micro-fabricated wedge for generation of optical vortex beam in optical manipulation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 209-213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

N. B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical tweezers and optical spanners with Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2485-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (3)

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. 't Hooft, “Half integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S288-S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Basistiy, V. A. Pas'ko, V. V. Slyusa, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Synthesis and analysis of optical vortices with fractional topological charges,” J. Opt. A 6, S166-S169(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry, “Optical vortices evolving from helicoidal integer and fractional phase steps,” J. Opt. A 6, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

JETP Lett. (2)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).

M. V. Vasnetsov, I. G. Marienko, and M. S. Soskin, “Self-reconstruction of an optical vortex,” JETP Lett. 71, 130-133(2000).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (3)

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovsky, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6, 131-145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Čelechovský and Z. Bouchal, “Optical implementation of the vortex information channel,” New J. Phys. 9, 328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan Leach, Eric Yao, and Miles J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, and K. Dholakia, “Experimental observation of optical vortex evolution in a Gaussian beam with an embedded fractional phase step,” Opt. Commun. 239, 129 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett, “Performance of cylindrical lens mode converter for producing Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Opt. Commun. 159, 13-18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Guo, D. M. Xue, Y. J. Han, and J. Ding, “Optimal phase steps of multi-level spiral phase plates,” Opt. Commun. 268, 235-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119, 604-612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Paterson, “Atmospheric turbulence and orbital angular momentum of single photons for optical communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. A. Helmbrecht, T. Juneau, M. Hart, and N. Doble, “Segmented MEMS deformable-mirror technology for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 6223, 622305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, “Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 1789-1797 (1981).

Other (1)

M. Scipioni, “Propagation of optical vortices through fog,” M.S. thesis (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavefront of an optical vortex with charge = 3 (arbitrary spatial units).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vortex phase in plane transverse to propagation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Iris AO S37-X segmented deformable mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Ideal linear spiral ramp and (b) ramp approximated by Iris AO deformable mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay of multiple-charge optical vortices into charge 1 vortices: (a)  charge = 1 , (b)  charge = 2 , (c)  charge = 3 (close-up view), (d)  charge = 4 (close-up view).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interference pattern [(a), (c), (e), simulated and (b), (d), (f), experimental] between reference plane wave and wave reflected off deformable mirror illustrating fork patterns due to the phase singularities present in the beam. (a) Simulated interference flat mirror, (b) experimental interference flat mirror, (c) simulated interference charge 1 vortex, (d) experimental interference charge 1 vortex, (e) simulated interference charge 5 vortex, (f) experimental interference charge 5 vortex.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the intensity pattern for the beam reflected off the deformable mirror from charge 0.0 to charge 4.0 obtained by gradually increasing the phase discontinuity.

Equations (1)

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f ( r , θ ) = A ( r , θ ) e i θ ,

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