Abstract

We measured the modal indices of a planar waveguide made from GeSeSb glass sandwiched between SiO2 and air by using the prism-coupling technique. Based on the measured indices of the TE modes, we determined the position of the turning point corresponding to each mode of the waveguide by using the inverse WKB method. Using the modified fitting criterion introduced previously [Appl. Opt. 33, 3227 (1994)], we accurately determined the spatial profile of the refractive index for such a waveguide. Such a graded-index profile is probably caused by compositional variation of the GeSeSb guiding layer.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328-329 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, and R. J. Martin, “Optical waveguide modes in single-crystalline LiNbO3-LiTaO3 solid-solution films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503-506 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. C. Noutsios and G. L. Yip, “Characterization and modeling of planar surface and buried glass waveguides made by field-assisted K+ ion exchange,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5283-5291(1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151-155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Mathey, P. Jullien, and J. L. Bolzinger, “Refractive-index profile reconstruction in planar waveguides by the WKB inverse method and reflectivity calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1663-1670 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385-391(1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Mu, X. Yue, J. Chen, J. Wang, and Z. Shao, “Planar waveguide refractive index distribution functions determined precisely from mode indices,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3227-3230(1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. B. Hocker and W. K. Burns, “Modes in diffused optical waveguides of arbitrary index profile,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 270-276 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385-391(1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

G. B. Hocker and W. K. Burns, “Modes in diffused optical waveguides of arbitrary index profile,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 270-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, and R. J. Martin, “Optical waveguide modes in single-crystalline LiNbO3-LiTaO3 solid-solution films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503-506 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328-329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bolzinger, J. L.

Burns, W. K.

G. B. Hocker and W. K. Burns, “Modes in diffused optical waveguides of arbitrary index profile,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 270-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385-391(1985).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, E. M.

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328-329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

Hocker, G. B.

G. B. Hocker and W. K. Burns, “Modes in diffused optical waveguides of arbitrary index profile,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 270-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jullien, P.

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, and R. J. Martin, “Optical waveguide modes in single-crystalline LiNbO3-LiTaO3 solid-solution films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503-506 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mathey, P.

Mu, X.

Noutsios, P. C.

Riva-Sanseverino, S.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, and R. J. Martin, “Optical waveguide modes in single-crystalline LiNbO3-LiTaO3 solid-solution films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503-506 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, and R. J. Martin, “Optical waveguide modes in single-crystalline LiNbO3-LiTaO3 solid-solution films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503-506 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

White, J. M.

Yip, G. L.

Yue, X.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 328-329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, and R. J. Martin, “Optical waveguide modes in single-crystalline LiNbO3-LiTaO3 solid-solution films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503-506 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. B. Hocker and W. K. Burns, “Modes in diffused optical waveguides of arbitrary index profile,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 270-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385-391(1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Planar waveguide consisting of GeSeSb glass and SiO 2 glass as the guiding layer and cladding layer, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index of mode versus modal depth calculated by using IWKB methods (see the text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modal indices fitted using the Fermi distribution function for air / GeSeSb / SiO 2 waveguide.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Modal Indices of Air / GeSeSb / SiO 2 Waveguide, Measured by Using the Prism Coupling Method

Equations (4)

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0 x m k n 2 ( x ) n m 2 d x = ( 4 m 1 ) π / 4 ,
k = 1 k = m x k 1 x k [ n k + ( n k 1 n k x k x k 1 ) ( x k x ) ] 2 n m 2 d x .
Δ = m = 1 M { 0 x m k n 2 ( x ) n m 2 d x [ ( 4 m 1 ) π / 4 ] } 2 .
n ( x ) = n s + Δ n 1 + e [ ( x d ) / a ] ,

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