Abstract

We present a simple method to fabricate blazed gratings used in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region. The method uses an argon and oxygen ion beam to etch directly the fused silica substrate through a rectangular profile photoresist grating mask. The blaze angle can be significantly reduced by using oxygen, and the profile evolution under ion-beam bombardment can be simplified when a rectangular mask is used. A simple geometric model is built to analyze the etching process. The etched grating groove profile is approximately triangular with a sharp apex angle provided the aspect ratio of the mask ridge is properly chosen; the blaze angle is directly proportional to the ion-beam grazing incident angle for a fixed oxygen partial pressure. Gratings of a 2400  line/mm groove density and 0.53° blaze angles have been fabricated, which confirms the convenience of this method and the effectiveness of the etching model.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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