Abstract

The celestial background (CB) has a potential significant influence on the laser intersatellite links (ISLs). A simple method to analyze the power and statistical distribution of the CB noise received by optical terminals is described for application to the ISLs. In order to evaluate the CB noise of the ISLs, an emulation analytic system is established. The CB noise of two adjacent interorbital plane ISLs and two intraorbital plane ISLs of a low Earth orbit satellite in the constellation is analyzed. The system can also be applied to examine the CB noise of other ISLs. The simulation results conduce to the performance evaluation of the ISLs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).
  2. B. Laurent and G. Planche, “SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 10-21 (1997).
  3. D. Boroson, R. Bondurant, and J. Scozzafava, “Overview of high-rate deep-space laser communication options,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 37-49 (2004).
  4. B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, A. Jankevics, M. Toledo-Quinones, F. Landers, and T. L. Bruno, “Horizontal line-of-sight turbulence over near-ground paths and implications for adaptive optics corrections in laser communications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4553-4560 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Arnon, S. Rotman, and N. S. Kopeika, “Optimum transmitter optics aperture for free space satellite optical communication as a function of tracking system performance,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 252-263 (1996).
  6. B. Smutny, R. Lange, G. Mühlnikel, and F. Heine, “Coherent laser communications terminals for LEO-GEO data links,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (CLRC), Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 12 July 2007.
  7. R. J. Leopold and A. Miller, “The IRIDIUM communications system,” Proc. IEEE 12, 6-9 (1993).
  8. R. J. Leopold and K. M. Peterson, “CELESTRI Ka-band sharing,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 553-560.
  9. D. P. Patterson, “Teledesic: a global broadband network,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 547-552.
  10. R. Suzuki and Y. Yasuda, “Study on ISL network structure in LEO satellite communication systems,” Acta Astronaut. 61, 648-658 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).
  12. N. Karafolas and S. Baroni, “Optical satellite networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1792-1806 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

2007 (1)

R. Suzuki and Y. Yasuda, “Study on ISL network structure in LEO satellite communication systems,” Acta Astronaut. 61, 648-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

2004 (2)

D. Boroson, R. Bondurant, and J. Scozzafava, “Overview of high-rate deep-space laser communication options,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 37-49 (2004).

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

B. Laurent and G. Planche, “SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 10-21 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. Arnon, S. Rotman, and N. S. Kopeika, “Optimum transmitter optics aperture for free space satellite optical communication as a function of tracking system performance,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 252-263 (1996).

1993 (1)

R. J. Leopold and A. Miller, “The IRIDIUM communications system,” Proc. IEEE 12, 6-9 (1993).

Arimoto, Y.

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

Arnon, S.

S. Arnon, S. Rotman, and N. S. Kopeika, “Optimum transmitter optics aperture for free space satellite optical communication as a function of tracking system performance,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 252-263 (1996).

Baroni, S.

Bondurant, R.

D. Boroson, R. Bondurant, and J. Scozzafava, “Overview of high-rate deep-space laser communication options,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 37-49 (2004).

Boroson, D.

D. Boroson, R. Bondurant, and J. Scozzafava, “Overview of high-rate deep-space laser communication options,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 37-49 (2004).

Bruno, T. L.

Dudelzak, A.

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

Gratton, D.

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

Heine, F.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, G. Mühlnikel, and F. Heine, “Coherent laser communications terminals for LEO-GEO data links,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (CLRC), Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 12 July 2007.

Hotte, L.

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

Jankevics, A.

Karafolas, N.

Kopeika, N. S.

S. Arnon, S. Rotman, and N. S. Kopeika, “Optimum transmitter optics aperture for free space satellite optical communication as a function of tracking system performance,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 252-263 (1996).

Koyama, Y.

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

Kunimori, H.

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

Kuzhelev, A.

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

Landers, F.

Lange, R.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, G. Mühlnikel, and F. Heine, “Coherent laser communications terminals for LEO-GEO data links,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (CLRC), Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 12 July 2007.

Laurent, B.

B. Laurent and G. Planche, “SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 10-21 (1997).

Leopold, R. J.

R. J. Leopold and A. Miller, “The IRIDIUM communications system,” Proc. IEEE 12, 6-9 (1993).

R. J. Leopold and K. M. Peterson, “CELESTRI Ka-band sharing,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 553-560.

Levine, B. M.

Martinsen, E. A.

Miller, A.

R. J. Leopold and A. Miller, “The IRIDIUM communications system,” Proc. IEEE 12, 6-9 (1993).

Morikawa, E.

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

Mühlnikel, G.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, G. Mühlnikel, and F. Heine, “Coherent laser communications terminals for LEO-GEO data links,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (CLRC), Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 12 July 2007.

Patterson, D. P.

D. P. Patterson, “Teledesic: a global broadband network,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 547-552.

Peterson, K. M.

R. J. Leopold and K. M. Peterson, “CELESTRI Ka-band sharing,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 553-560.

Planche, G.

B. Laurent and G. Planche, “SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 10-21 (1997).

Rotman, S.

S. Arnon, S. Rotman, and N. S. Kopeika, “Optimum transmitter optics aperture for free space satellite optical communication as a function of tracking system performance,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 252-263 (1996).

Scozzafava, J.

D. Boroson, R. Bondurant, and J. Scozzafava, “Overview of high-rate deep-space laser communication options,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 37-49 (2004).

Shiratama, K.

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

Smutny, B.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, G. Mühlnikel, and F. Heine, “Coherent laser communications terminals for LEO-GEO data links,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (CLRC), Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 12 July 2007.

Suzuki, R.

R. Suzuki and Y. Yasuda, “Study on ISL network structure in LEO satellite communication systems,” Acta Astronaut. 61, 648-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

Toledo-Quinones, M.

Wirth, A.

Yasuda, Y.

R. Suzuki and Y. Yasuda, “Study on ISL network structure in LEO satellite communication systems,” Acta Astronaut. 61, 648-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

Acta Astronaut. (1)

R. Suzuki and Y. Yasuda, “Study on ISL network structure in LEO satellite communication systems,” Acta Astronaut. 61, 648-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. J. Leopold and A. Miller, “The IRIDIUM communications system,” Proc. IEEE 12, 6-9 (1993).

Proc. SPIE (6)

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, H. Kunimori, K. Shiratama, and Y. Yasuda, “Components development for NeLS optical terminal,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 217-224 (2005).

S. Arnon, S. Rotman, and N. S. Kopeika, “Optimum transmitter optics aperture for free space satellite optical communication as a function of tracking system performance,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 252-263 (1996).

A. Dudelzak, A. Kuzhelev, D. Gratton, L. Hotte, and Y. Arimoto, “High bit rate free-space communicator using automatic nonlinear all-optical beam tracking,” Proc. SPIE 5712, 72-80 (2005).

B. Laurent and G. Planche, “SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign,” Proc. SPIE 2990, 10-21 (1997).

D. Boroson, R. Bondurant, and J. Scozzafava, “Overview of high-rate deep-space laser communication options,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 37-49 (2004).

Y. Koyama, E. Morikawa, K. Shiratama, R. Suzuki, and Y. Yasuda, “Optical terminal for NeLS in-orbit demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 5338, 29-36 (2004).

Other (3)

B. Smutny, R. Lange, G. Mühlnikel, and F. Heine, “Coherent laser communications terminals for LEO-GEO data links,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (CLRC), Snowmass, Colorado, USA, 12 July 2007.

R. J. Leopold and K. M. Peterson, “CELESTRI Ka-band sharing,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 553-560.

D. P. Patterson, “Teledesic: a global broadband network,” in Proceedings of Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 4, pp. 547-552.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radiation schematic of the CB noise.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the spectral irradiance of exoatmospheric solar radiation and the approximate curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of P b as a function of T and m v ( λ = 1550 nm , Δ λ = 25 nm , D = 100 mm ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the CB noise model of the ISLs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the emulation analytic system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of PDF histograms of the CB noise power P b for all the celestial bodies.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of PDF histograms of P b for all the celestial bodies received in a single channel of three types of wavelength allocation for WDM systems (4 channels, 8 channels, and 16 channels).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Curves performing N of the two intraorbital plane ISLs in the coarse acquisition status versus time, and their PDF histograms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of N of the two intraorbital plane ISLs in the communication status versus time.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Curves performing N of the two interorbital plane ISLs in the coarse acquisition status versus time, and their PDF histograms.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of N of the two interorbital plane ISLs in the communication status versus time.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

PDF histograms of P b for these four ISLs.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Primary Parameters of Optical Terminals for NeLS Constellation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Details of the Intraorbital Plane Intersatellite Links

Tables Icon

Table 3 Details of the Interorbital Plane Intersatellite Links

Equations (8)

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P b = L ( λ ) ( Δ λ ) S A S B / Z 2 ,
P b = S B E ( λ ) d λ d S .
P b = π D 2 4 Δ λ E ( λ ) d λ ,
E v ( m v ) = E v ( 0 ) × 10 0.4 m v ,
E ( λ ) = E v ( m v ) M v ( T ) M ( λ , T ) ,
M v ( T ) = 683 0 M ( λ , T ) V ( λ ) d λ .
θ S = arccos ( R i S · R i j | R i S | | R i j | ) arccos ( ρ ES · R i j | R i j | ) ,
ρ ES = ( cos Dec · cos RA cos Dec · sin RA sin Dec ) ,

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