Abstract

The interest in terahertz photometric and imaging measurements has motivated the development of bandpass resonant filters to be coupled to multiple-pixel devices such as bolometer arrays. Resonant grids are relatively simple to fabricate, exhibiting high transmission at the central frequency, a narrow bandpass, and good rejection of the side frequencies of the spectrum. We have fabricated filters centered at different frequencies between 0.4 and 10THz, using photolithography and electroforming techniques. Transmission measurements have shown center frequencies and bandwidths close to the design predictions. The performance of the filters was found not to be critically dependent on small physical deformations in the mesh, becoming more noticeable at higher frequencies (i.e., for smaller physical sizes). Wider bandwidths, needed to attain higher sensitivities in the continuum, were obtained by changing the design parameters for filters at 2 and 3THz.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: status and trends,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(2-3), 59-210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. D. Möller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and P. Lalanne, “Thick inductive cross shaped metal mesh,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9461-9465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1967 (1)

R. Ulrich, “Far infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,” Infrared Phys. 7, 37-50 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Auchère, F.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, O. H.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Bortolucci, E. C.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Chang, J.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chase, S. T.

Cheng, E. S.

Crowe, T. W.

da Silva, A. M. P. A.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Densing, R.

Edewaard, D. C.

Fang, C.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feuchtgruber, H.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gan, W. Q.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gillan, P.

Goldsmith, P. F.

P. F. Goldsmith, “Quasioptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 80, 1729-1747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Golubovic, B.

Grebel, H.

K. D. Möller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and P. Lalanne, “Thick inductive cross shaped metal mesh,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9461-9465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gundersen, J.

Heaney, J. B.

Henning, T.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. D.

Kaufmann, P.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Kerschbaum, F.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, K.-L.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kornberg, M.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Kotecki, C.

Lalanne, P.

K. D. Möller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and P. Lalanne, “Thick inductive cross shaped metal mesh,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9461-9465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, D.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melo, A. M.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Meyer, S. S.

Möller, K. D.

Mueller, E. R.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Page, L. A.

Piazzetta, M. H.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Poglitsch, A.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Porterfield, D. W.

Prado, J.-Y.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Renotte, E.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, L.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: status and trends,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(2-3), 59-210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rouesnel, F.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saraceno, P.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sémery, A.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, O.

K. D. Möller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and P. Lalanne, “Thick inductive cross shaped metal mesh,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9461-9465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, V. P.

Trottet, G.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, “Far infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,” Infrared Phys. 7, 37-50 (1967).
[CrossRef]

van Hoof, C.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vandenbussche, B.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vial, J.-C.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waelkens, C.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warren, J. B.

Weikle, R. M.

Zakia, M. B.

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

J.-C. Vial, F. Auchère, J. Chang, C. Fang, W. Q. Gan, K.-L. Klein, J.-Y. Prado, F. Rouesnel, A. Sémery, G. Trottet, and C. Wang, “SMESE (Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions): a microsatellite mission with combined solar payload,” Adv. Space Res. 41, 183-189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Infrared Phys. (1)

R. Ulrich, “Far infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,” Infrared Phys. 7, 37-50 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. D. Möller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and P. Lalanne, “Thick inductive cross shaped metal mesh,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9461-9465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, O. H. Bauer, J. Cepa, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Henning, C. van Hoof, F. Kerschbaum, D. Lemke, E. Renotte, L. Rodriguez, P. Saraceno, and B. Vandenbussche, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for the Herschel Space Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: status and trends,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27(2-3), 59-210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. M. Melo, O. H. Bauer, E. C. Bortolucci, P. Kaufmann, M. Kornberg, M. H. Piazzetta, A. Poglitsch, A. M. P. A. da Silva, and M. B. Zakia, “The development of RF band-pass resonant mesh filters for the THz range,” in International Workshop on Telecommunications Proceedings (Inatel, 2007), pp. 256-258.

P. F. Goldsmith, “Quasioptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 80, 1729-1747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of a cross-shaped bandpass filter with geometry parameters G, L, K, and h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, electron micrograph of the prepared sample for nickel electrodeposition. Right, one example of the final fabricated mesh, a, compared with the crosses made of SU-8 with heights ranging between 10 and 20 μ m , b.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Steps for the fabrication process: A, prepared substrate with SiO 2 , titanium, and fold; B, deposited SU-8 photoresist; C, photolithography process; D, electroplating process; E, development of the photoresist; F, final etching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electronic micrograph for three filter samples with central frequencies, 0.67, 2, and 10 THz . The enlarged electron micrograph for the same meshes at an angle show more details of the round features at the corners, side wall definition, and slight bending of the cross arms for the 10 THz filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission frequency response for the fabricated THz filters, exhibiting performances close to the design predictions. The labels correspond to the filters listed in Tables 1, 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mesh filter transmission obtained by different authors, compared with the present results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparative half-power bandpass results (in percent of central frequency) obtained by different authors, compared with the present results.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Mesh Parameters for Different Frequencies

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Mesh Transmission Parameters for Different Mesh Filters

Metrics