Abstract

The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo #1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Gemological Institute of America (GIA), “Colored Stone Essentials Chapter 8: Presenting the Big 3” (GIA, date), p. 32.
  2. G. W. Bowersox, L. W. Snee, E. E. Foord, and R. R. Seal, “Emeralds of the Panjsher Valley,” Gem. Gemol. 27, 26-39 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).
  4. J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).
  6. D. Günther and R. E. Kane, “Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a new way of analyzing gemstones,” Gem. Gemol. 35, 160-161 (1999).
  7. A. Abduriyim, H. Kitawaki, M. Furuya, and D. Schwarz, “'Paraíba'-type copper-bearing tourmaline from Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique: chemical fingerprinting by LA-ICP-MS,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 4-21 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Abduriyim and H. Kitawaki, “Applications of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to gemology,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 98-118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).
  10. W. A. Deer, R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman, Rock Forming Minerals, Vol. 1, Ortho- and Ring Silicates (Longman, 1975).
  11. E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).
  12. R. W. Whitmore and R. C. Lawrence, “The Pegmatite mines known as Palermo,” in Friends of Palermo Mines (Friends of Palermo Mines, 2004).
  13. D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “U-Pb monazite geochronology of granitic rocks from Maine: implications for Late Paleozoic tectonics in the Northern Appalachians,” J. Geol. 104, 185-195 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “Sm-Nd isotope systematics and the derivation of granitic pegmatites in southwestern Maine,” Can. Mineral. 36, 327-337 (1998).
  16. N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Abduriyim, H. Kitawaki, M. Furuya, and D. Schwarz, “'Paraíba'-type copper-bearing tourmaline from Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique: chemical fingerprinting by LA-ICP-MS,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 4-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Abduriyim and H. Kitawaki, “Applications of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to gemology,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 98-118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

1999

D. Günther and R. E. Kane, “Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a new way of analyzing gemstones,” Gem. Gemol. 35, 160-161 (1999).

1998

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “Sm-Nd isotope systematics and the derivation of granitic pegmatites in southwestern Maine,” Can. Mineral. 36, 327-337 (1998).

1996

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “U-Pb monazite geochronology of granitic rocks from Maine: implications for Late Paleozoic tectonics in the Northern Appalachians,” J. Geol. 104, 185-195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).

1991

G. W. Bowersox, L. W. Snee, E. E. Foord, and R. R. Seal, “Emeralds of the Panjsher Valley,” Gem. Gemol. 27, 26-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).

1969

D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abduriyim, A.

A. Abduriyim, H. Kitawaki, M. Furuya, and D. Schwarz, “'Paraíba'-type copper-bearing tourmaline from Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique: chemical fingerprinting by LA-ICP-MS,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 4-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Abduriyim and H. Kitawaki, “Applications of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to gemology,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 98-118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arhan, T.

G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).

Aurisicchio, C.

C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).

Baker, J.

G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).

Bowersox, G. W.

G. W. Bowersox, L. W. Snee, E. E. Foord, and R. R. Seal, “Emeralds of the Panjsher Valley,” Gem. Gemol. 27, 26-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brookins, D. G.

D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, E. N.

E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).

Cheilletz, A.

G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).

De Lucia, F. C.

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deer, W. A.

W. A. Deer, R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman, Rock Forming Minerals, Vol. 1, Ortho- and Ring Silicates (Longman, 1975).

Fairbairn, H. W.

D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Falster, A. U.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fioravanti, G.

C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).

Foord, E. E.

G. W. Bowersox, L. W. Snee, E. E. Foord, and R. R. Seal, “Emeralds of the Panjsher Valley,” Gem. Gemol. 27, 26-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, M.

A. Abduriyim, H. Kitawaki, M. Furuya, and D. Schwarz, “'Paraíba'-type copper-bearing tourmaline from Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique: chemical fingerprinting by LA-ICP-MS,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 4-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Guillerminet, H.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).

Grubessi, O.

C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).

Günther, D.

D. Günther and R. E. Kane, “Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a new way of analyzing gemstones,” Gem. Gemol. 35, 160-161 (1999).

Harmon, R. S.

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howie, R. A.

W. A. Deer, R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman, Rock Forming Minerals, Vol. 1, Ortho- and Ring Silicates (Longman, 1975).

Hurley, P. M.

D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kane, R. E.

D. Günther and R. E. Kane, “Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a new way of analyzing gemstones,” Gem. Gemol. 35, 160-161 (1999).

Kitawaki, H.

A. Abduriyim, H. Kitawaki, M. Furuya, and D. Schwarz, “'Paraíba'-type copper-bearing tourmaline from Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique: chemical fingerprinting by LA-ICP-MS,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 4-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Abduriyim and H. Kitawaki, “Applications of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to gemology,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 98-118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koivula, J. I.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krogstad, E. J.

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “Sm-Nd isotope systematics and the derivation of granitic pegmatites in southwestern Maine,” Can. Mineral. 36, 327-337 (1998).

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “U-Pb monazite geochronology of granitic rocks from Maine: implications for Late Paleozoic tectonics in the Northern Appalachians,” J. Geol. 104, 185-195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D. M.

E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).

Laurs, B. A.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. C.

R. W. Whitmore and R. C. Lawrence, “The Pegmatite mines known as Palermo,” in Friends of Palermo Mines (Friends of Palermo Mines, 2004).

Lustenhower, W. J.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McManus, C. E.

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillan, J.

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNair, A. H.

E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).

Miziolek, A. W.

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muhlmeister, S.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Page, J. J.

E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).

Pinson, W. H.

D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, D.

A. Abduriyim, H. Kitawaki, M. Furuya, and D. Schwarz, “'Paraíba'-type copper-bearing tourmaline from Brazil, Nigeria, and Mozambique: chemical fingerprinting by LA-ICP-MS,” Gem. Gemol. 42, 4-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seal, R. R.

G. W. Bowersox, L. W. Snee, E. E. Foord, and R. R. Seal, “Emeralds of the Panjsher Valley,” Gem. Gemol. 27, 26-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, A. V.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Shainin, V. E.

E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).

Simmons, S.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snee, L. W.

G. W. Bowersox, L. W. Snee, E. E. Foord, and R. R. Seal, “Emeralds of the Panjsher Valley,” Gem. Gemol. 27, 26-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steward, G. W.

E. N. Cameron, D. M. Larrabee, A. H. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Steward, and V. E. Shainin, “Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 254 (USGS, 1954).

Tomascak, P. B.

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “Sm-Nd isotope systematics and the derivation of granitic pegmatites in southwestern Maine,” Can. Mineral. 36, 327-337 (1998).

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “U-Pb monazite geochronology of granitic rocks from Maine: implications for Late Paleozoic tectonics in the Northern Appalachians,” J. Geol. 104, 185-195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vrána, S.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Vratislav, P.

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Walker, R. J.

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “Sm-Nd isotope systematics and the derivation of granitic pegmatites in southwestern Maine,” Can. Mineral. 36, 327-337 (1998).

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “U-Pb monazite geochronology of granitic rocks from Maine: implications for Late Paleozoic tectonics in the Northern Appalachians,” J. Geol. 104, 185-195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitmore, R. W.

R. W. Whitmore and R. C. Lawrence, “The Pegmatite mines known as Palermo,” in Friends of Palermo Mines (Friends of Palermo Mines, 2004).

Žácek, V.

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Zachariáš, J.

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Zanazzi, P. F.

C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).

Zussman, J.

W. A. Deer, R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman, Rock Forming Minerals, Vol. 1, Ortho- and Ring Silicates (Longman, 1975).

Zwaan, J. C.

J. C. Zwaan, A. V. Seifert, S. Vrána, B. A. Laurs, S. Simmons, A. U. Falster, W. J. Lustenhower, S. Muhlmeister, J. I. Koivula, and H. Garcia-Guillerminet, “Emeralds from the Kafubu Area, Zambia,” Gem. Gemol. 41, 116-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Am. Mineral.

C. Aurisicchio, G. Fioravanti, O. Grubessi, and P. F. Zanazzi, “Reappraisal of the crystal chemistry of beryl,” Am. Mineral. 73, 826-837 (1988).

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

N.J. McMillan, C. E. McManus, R. S. Harmon, F. C. De Lucia, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of complex silicate minerals--beryl,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 263-271 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny

G. Giuliani, A. Cheilletz, J. Baker, and T. Arhan, “Evaporitic origin of the pattern brines of Colombian emeralds; fluid inclusion and sulphur isotopic evidences,” Archiwum Mineralogiczne / Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Geologiczny 49, 82-84 (1993).

Bull. Geosci.

A. V. Seifert, V. Žáček, S. Vrána, P. Vratislav, J. Zachariáš, and J. C. Zwaan, “Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia,” Bull. Geosci. 79, 1-40 (2004).

Can. Mineral.

P. B. Tomascak, E. J. Krogstad, and R. J. Walker, “Sm-Nd isotope systematics and the derivation of granitic pegmatites in southwestern Maine,” Can. Mineral. 36, 327-337 (1998).

Contrib. Mineral. Petrol.

D. G. Brookins, H. W. Fairbairn, P. M. Hurley, and W. H. Pinson, “A Rb-Sr geochronologic study of the pegmatites of the Middletown area, Connecticut,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 22, 157-168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gem. Gemol.

D. Günther and R. E. Kane, “Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a new way of analyzing gemstones,” Gem. Gemol. 35, 160-161 (1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of beryl projected onto (0001), looking down the c-axis, from [16].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Map of New England, USA, showing the locations of pegmatites examined in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Map of the Palermo #1 pegmatite, after Whitmore and Lawrence (2004).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Broadband LIBS spectra of beryl NH03-GG from Palermo #1. The major emission lines are labeled.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PC1–PC2 score plots for three data pretreatment methods for the Palermo #1 beryls. Samples from the core and intermediate zones are circled. (a) average of raw spectra, (b) average of background-corrected spectra, (c) average of normalized spectra. See text for details.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Score and one-dimensional loading plots for Palermo #1 beryls. Symbols as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Score and one-dimensional loading plots for Connecticut beryls: PC1 versus PC2, PC1 versus PC3, loadings for PC1, PC2, PC3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Score and one-dimensional loading plots for Maine beryls: PC1 versus PC2, PC1 versus PC3, loadings for PC1, PC2, PC3.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Score and one-dimensional loading plots for New England beryls: PC1 versus PC2, PC1 versus PC3, loadings for PC1, PC2, PC3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Descriptions of Beryls Used in this Study

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