Abstract

A study was undertaken to determine if laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be a practical and competitive alternative to x-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods for lead-in-paint inspection. Experiments in the laboratory confirmed that LIBS is suitable for detecting lead in paint at the hazard levels defined by federal agencies. Although we compared speed, function, and cost, fundamental differences between the XRF and LIBS measurements limited our ability to make a quantitative performance comparison. While the LIBS method can achieve the required sensitivity and offers a way to obtain unique information during inspection, the current component costs will likely restrict interest in the method to niche applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. “CPSC announces final ban on lead-containing paint,” Office of Information and Public Affairs, Washington, D.C., 2 September, 1977.
  2. “Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992,” EPA Public Law 102-550, 102nd Congress-2nd Session, enacted 28 October, 1992.
  3. G. Markowitz and D. Rosner, “Cater to the children: the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900-1955,” Am. J. Public Health 90, 36-46 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. “Why lead-based paint was used,” http://www.leadlawsuits.com/index.php?s=community, retrieved on 24 March, 2008.
  5. This information can be found at the National Safety Council website, http://www.nsc.org/issues/lead.aspx, retrieved on 24 March, 2008.
  6. D. E. Jacobs, “Lead-based paint inspection,” in Guidelines for the Evaluation & Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing (Daine , 1995), Chap. 7.
  7. A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Jenkins, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (Chemical Analysis: a Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications), 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1999).
    [PubMed]
  9. L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1989).
  10. D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, eds., Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, eds., Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. W. Hahn, W. L. Flower, and K. R. Hencken, “Discrete particle detection and metal emissions using laser-induced breakdown specroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1836-1844 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “In situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. R.C.Weast, MJ.Astle, and W.H.Beyer, eds., 67th ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 1986).
  17. M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. This information can be found at http://www.rmd-lpa1.com/, retrieved on March 24, 2008.
  20. This information can be found at http://www.oceanoptics.com/products/hr2000.asp.
  21. “Sony ILX511 to Toshiba TCD1304AP Detector FAQ,” http://www.oceanoptics.com/products/detectorfaq.asp, retrieved on 24 March, 2008.
  22. This information can be found at http://www.kigre.com/, retrieved on 24 March , 2008.
  23. American National Standard on the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-2000, (American National Standards Institute, 2000).

2007 (1)

A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Markowitz and D. Rosner, “Cater to the children: the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900-1955,” Am. J. Public Health 90, 36-46 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “In situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977 (1996).
[Crossref]

Angel, S. M.

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “In situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977 (1996).
[Crossref]

Castle, B. C.

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

Corsi, M.

Cristoforetti, G.

Fernandez Romero, J. M.

J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
[Crossref]

Flower, W. L.

Goode, S. R.

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “In situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hahn, D. W.

Hencken, K. R.

Hidalgo, M.

Iriarte, D.

Jacobs, D. E.

D. E. Jacobs, “Lead-based paint inspection,” in Guidelines for the Evaluation & Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing (Daine , 1995), Chap. 7.

Jenkins, R.

R. Jenkins, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (Chemical Analysis: a Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications), 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1999).
[PubMed]

Knight, A. K.

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

Laserna, J. J.

J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. B.

W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. I.

W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Legnaioli, S.

Levin, J.

A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markowitz, G.

G. Markowitz and D. Rosner, “Cater to the children: the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900-1955,” Am. J. Public Health 90, 36-46 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquardt, B. J.

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “In situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mathee, A.

A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, I.

A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palleschi, V.

Rodriguez, C.

J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rollin, H.

A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosner, D.

G. Markowitz and D. Rosner, “Cater to the children: the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900-1955,” Am. J. Public Health 90, 36-46 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salvetti, A.

Smith, B. W.

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sneddon, J.

W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tognoni, E.

Vadillo, J. M.

J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
[Crossref]

Visser, K.

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

Winefordner, J. D.

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. Y.

W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Public Health (1)

G. Markowitz and D. Rosner, “Cater to the children: the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900-1955,” Am. J. Public Health 90, 36-46 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. J. Marquardt, S. R. Goode, and S. M. Angel, “In situ determination of lead in paint by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a fiber-optic probe,” Anal. Chem. 68, 977 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Applied Spectroscopy Reviews (1)

W. B. Lee, J. Y. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Recent applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: A review of material approaches,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 39, 27-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Environmental Health Perspectives (1)

A. Mathee, H. Rollin, J. Levin, and I. Naik,“Lead in paint: three decades later and still a hazard for african children?,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115, 321-322 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry (1)

B. C. Castle, A. K. Knight, K. Visser, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Battery powered laser-induced plasma spectrometer for elemental determination,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13, 589-595 (1998).
[Crossref]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

J. M. Vadillo, J. M. Fernandez Romero, C. Rodriguez, and J. J. Laserna, “Effect of plasma shielding on laser ablation rate of pure metals at reduced pressure,” Surf. Interface Anal. 27, 1009-1015 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (15)

This information can be found at http://www.rmd-lpa1.com/, retrieved on March 24, 2008.

This information can be found at http://www.oceanoptics.com/products/hr2000.asp.

“Sony ILX511 to Toshiba TCD1304AP Detector FAQ,” http://www.oceanoptics.com/products/detectorfaq.asp, retrieved on 24 March, 2008.

This information can be found at http://www.kigre.com/, retrieved on 24 March , 2008.

American National Standard on the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-2000, (American National Standards Institute, 2000).

R.C.Weast, MJ.Astle, and W.H.Beyer, eds., 67th ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 1986).

“CPSC announces final ban on lead-containing paint,” Office of Information and Public Affairs, Washington, D.C., 2 September, 1977.

“Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992,” EPA Public Law 102-550, 102nd Congress-2nd Session, enacted 28 October, 1992.

R. Jenkins, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (Chemical Analysis: a Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications), 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1999).
[PubMed]

L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1989).

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, eds., Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, eds., Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
[Crossref]

“Why lead-based paint was used,” http://www.leadlawsuits.com/index.php?s=community, retrieved on 24 March, 2008.

This information can be found at the National Safety Council website, http://www.nsc.org/issues/lead.aspx, retrieved on 24 March, 2008.

D. E. Jacobs, “Lead-based paint inspection,” in Guidelines for the Evaluation & Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing (Daine , 1995), Chap. 7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram showing the LIBS experimental setup used during our studies. The He–Ne laser was used for alignment. Typical laser energies ranged from 5 to 7 mJ and both a bench top and a compact spectrometer were used during our studies. The inset shows the spectrum from latex paint with and without Pb. The Pb emission at 405.8 nm is noted with an arrow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pb emission signal-to-background ratio of paint increases as a function of laser energy, but the penetration depth per laser pulse decreases with increasing energy. This decrease is likely due to plasma screening. Data were collected using the cooled CCD and 1 / 4 m spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the dry wt. % of PbCO 3 added to a commercial latex paint. The measurements were performed at 7 mJ with a cooled CCD detector. Data were recorded following averaging of six laser shots. The federal guideline of 0.05 dry wt. % of Pb ( 5000 ppm ) is noted with a dashed line. Concentration errors result from sample preparation and achieving homogeneous blending. Data were collected using the cooled CCD and 1 / 4 m spectrometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pb signal with background subtracted as a function of depth for a sample that came from a house built in 1880 and contained several layers of paint. The dashed line indicates the approximate boundary between the paint and the wood substrate. The Pb emission signal beyond the boundary layer is likely due to absorption of the primer into the wood substrate as well as the continued sampling of the Pb paint. Data were recorded with the HR2000 spectrometer from Ocean Optics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picture of the paint crater created by the LIBS process. Each was formed with four laser shots. The laser energies range from 28.4 mJ (indicated with an arrow on the left) to 2.2 mJ (indicated with an arrow on the right). The smallest crater has a diameter of 75 μm . The paint was applied to an Al substrate, and typical paint imperfections can been seen. The region above the arrow on the left was formed with over 100 laser pulses and has a dark ring from ablation of the Al.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications of Compact Lasers Available from Kigre, Inc.

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