Abstract

The utility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for categorizing different types of gallbladder stone has been demonstrated by analyzing their major and minor constituents. LIBS spectra of three types of gallstone have been recorded in the 200900nm spectral region. Calcium is found to be the major element in all types of gallbladder stone. The spectrophotometric method has been used to classify the stones. A calibration-free LIBS method has been used for the quantitative analysis of metal elements, and the results have been compared with those obtained from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) measurements. The single-shot LIBS spectra from different points on the cross section (in steps of 0.5mm from one end to the other) of gallstones have also been recorded to study the variation of constituents from the center to the surface. The presence of different metal elements and their possible role in gallstone formation is discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Agarwal and V. R. Singh, “Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gallbladder stones,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 11, 143-146 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  5. U. Wosiewitz, “Scanning electron microscopy in gallstone research,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Part 1, 419-430 (1983).
  6. M. Tabata and F. Nakayama, “Bacteria and gallstones: etiological significance,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 26, 218-224 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, and T. Sato, “Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 259-265 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Maki, “Pathogenesis of calcium bilirubinate gallstones: role of E. coli, β-glucuronidase and coagulation by inorganic ions, polyelectrolytes and agitation,” Ann. Surg. 164, 90-100(1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. T. Al-Kinani, I. A. Harris, and D. E. Watt, “Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionizing radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 175-184 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).
  13. C. Koeberl and P. M. Bayer, “Concentrations of rare earth elements in human brain tissue and kidney stones determined by neutron activation analysis,” J. Alloys Compd. 180, 63-70(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Joost and R. Tessadri, “Trace element investigations in kidney stone patients,” Eur. Urol. 13, 264-270 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  15. X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Surg. Med. 28, 330-334 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).
  19. P. Chandran, P. Garg, and C. S. Pundir, “Correlation between chemical components of biliary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients,” Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 20, 81-85 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Salimi, K. Moosavi, and S. Vatankhah, “The concentration of heavy trace elements in pigment and cholesterol human gallstones: comparative studies by PIXE analysis,” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 1, 93-97 (2003).
  21. I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Kumar, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5399-5403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, 2007).
  25. A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).
  26. A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, V. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A new procedure for quantitative elemental analyses by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 960-964 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidol, M. Chaker, B. L. Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 529-536(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  37. E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. K. Singh, V. Rai, and A. K. Rai, “Variational study of the constituents of cholesterol stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-007-0516-0.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and D. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for solid and molten materials,” in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, J.P.Singh and S.N.Thakur, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 255-284.
    [CrossRef]
  40. S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Screening of brick-kiln area soil for determination of heavy metal Pb using LIBS,” Environ. Monit. Assess. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0173-1.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile tool for monitoring of traces in materials,” Pramana J. Phys. 70, 553-563 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  42. N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS--an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835-838 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  43. R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
    [CrossRef]
  44. B. W. Trotman, J. D. Ostrow, and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment vs. cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 585-590 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).
  46. N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. M. Donovan, “Physical and metabolic factors in gallstone pathogenesis,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28, 75-97(1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. NIST Atomic Spectra Database, http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/lines_form.html.
  50. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).
  51. W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  52. W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile tool for monitoring of traces in materials,” Pramana J. Phys. 70, 553-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS--an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835-838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Barthélemy, J. Margot, S. Laville, F. Vidol, M. Chaker, B. L. Drogoff, T. W. Johnston, and M. Sabsabi, “Investigation of the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium of a laser-produced aluminum plasma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 529-536(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chandran, P. Garg, and C. S. Pundir, “Correlation between chemical components of biliary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients,” Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 20, 81-85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5399-5403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Salimi, K. Moosavi, and S. Vatankhah, “The concentration of heavy trace elements in pigment and cholesterol human gallstones: comparative studies by PIXE analysis,” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 1, 93-97 (2003).

2002 (6)

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).

M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Surg. Med. 28, 330-334 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Agarwal and V. R. Singh, “Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gallbladder stones,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 11, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (2)

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

1992 (2)

C. Koeberl and P. M. Bayer, “Concentrations of rare earth elements in human brain tissue and kidney stones determined by neutron activation analysis,” J. Alloys Compd. 180, 63-70(1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

1989 (2)

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).

1988 (1)

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Joost and R. Tessadri, “Trace element investigations in kidney stone patients,” Eur. Urol. 13, 264-270 (1987).
[PubMed]

1984 (2)

A. T. Al-Kinani, I. A. Harris, and D. E. Watt, “Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionizing radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 175-184 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

U. Wosiewitz, “Scanning electron microscopy in gallstone research,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Part 1, 419-430 (1983).

1981 (1)

M. Tabata and F. Nakayama, “Bacteria and gallstones: etiological significance,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 26, 218-224 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, and T. Sato, “Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 259-265 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

B. W. Trotman, J. D. Ostrow, and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment vs. cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 585-590 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

T. Maki, “Pathogenesis of calcium bilirubinate gallstones: role of E. coli, β-glucuronidase and coagulation by inorganic ions, polyelectrolytes and agitation,” Ann. Surg. 164, 90-100(1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, R.

R. Agarwal and V. R. Singh, “Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gallbladder stones,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 11, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, S. R.

X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Kinani, A. T.

A. T. Al-Kinani, I. A. Harris, and D. E. Watt, “Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionizing radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 175-184 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baliva, A.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, L.

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

Barthélemy, O.

Bayer, P. M.

C. Koeberl and P. M. Bayer, “Concentrations of rare earth elements in human brain tissue and kidney stones determined by neutron activation analysis,” J. Alloys Compd. 180, 63-70(1992).
[CrossRef]

Berhoft, R. A.

R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
[CrossRef]

Borgia, I.

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bulajic, D.

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, V. S.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, S.

Burgio, L.

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

Chandran, P.

P. Chandran, P. Garg, and C. S. Pundir, “Correlation between chemical components of biliary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients,” Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 20, 81-85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chua-anusorn, W.

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ciucci, A.

Clarke, R. H.

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Surg. Med. 28, 330-334 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, B.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, Z.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, V. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A new procedure for quantitative elemental analyses by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 960-964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cortez, J.

C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cristoforetti, G.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dabezies, M. A.

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

Demura, R.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deniz, N.

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donovan, J. M.

J. M. Donovan, “Physical and metabolic factors in gallstone pathogenesis,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28, 75-97(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drogoff, B. L.

Fabbri, F.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantoni, R.

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fichet, P.

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fornarini, L.

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gadacz, T. R.

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

Galka, M.

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

Garg, P.

P. Chandran, P. Garg, and C. S. Pundir, “Correlation between chemical components of biliary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients,” Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 20, 81-85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gonzaga, F. B.

C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gornushkin, I.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Harris, I. A.

A. T. Al-Kinani, I. A. Harris, and D. E. Watt, “Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionizing radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 175-184 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hidalgo, M.

Hobarth, K.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Hofbauer, J.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Hu, T. D.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

Huang, H. M.

J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).

Huang, W. D.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huleihel, M.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, S.

X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, T. W.

Joost, J.

J. Joost and R. Tessadri, “Trace element investigations in kidney stone patients,” Eur. Urol. 13, 264-270 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kakino, J.

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kantarovich, K.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kiris, V. V.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, O.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobar, A.

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N.

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodaka, T.

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koeberl, C.

C. Koeberl and P. M. Bayer, “Concentrations of rare earth elements in human brain tissue and kidney stones determined by neutron activation analysis,” J. Alloys Compd. 180, 63-70(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kotani, N.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

Kwiatek, W.

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, J. L.

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laville, S.

Lazic, V.

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levi, C.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. H.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lombard, C.

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

Long, W. B.

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lu, J. F.

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maki, T.

T. Maki, “Pathogenesis of calcium bilirubinate gallstones: role of E. coli, β-glucuronidase and coagulation by inorganic ions, polyelectrolytes and agitation,” Ann. Surg. 164, 90-100(1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malet, P. F.

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

Manhes, G.

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Margot, J.

Marinangeli, L.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. S.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mauchien, P.

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, S.

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, M.

X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miziolek, A. W.

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Moosavi, K.

J. Salimi, K. Moosavi, and S. Vatankhah, “The concentration of heavy trace elements in pigment and cholesterol human gallstones: comparative studies by PIXE analysis,” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 1, 93-97 (2003).

Mordechai, S.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mordehai, J.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mori, R.

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motson, R. W.

R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, M.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y.

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, and T. Sato, “Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 259-265 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakayama, F.

M. Tabata and F. Nakayama, “Bacteria and gallstones: etiological significance,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 26, 218-224 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimatsu, S.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumenkov, P. A.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ori, G. G.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, J. D.

B. W. Trotman, J. D. Ostrow, and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment vs. cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 585-590 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palleschi, V.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, V. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A new procedure for quantitative elemental analyses by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 960-964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Paluszkiewicz, C.

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

Pandhija, S.

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile tool for monitoring of traces in materials,” Pramana J. Phys. 70, 553-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Screening of brick-kiln area soil for determination of heavy metal Pb using LIBS,” Environ. Monit. Assess. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0173-1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panne, U.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paolini, A.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parczewski, A.

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, C.

C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, C. A.

R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Q.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perk, H.

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polyak, B.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pougnet, B.

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

Premasiri, W. R.

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Surg. Med. 28, 330-334 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pundir, C. S.

P. Chandran, P. Garg, and C. S. Pundir, “Correlation between chemical components of biliary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients,” Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 20, 81-85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rai, A. K.

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile tool for monitoring of traces in materials,” Pramana J. Phys. 70, 553-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS--an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835-838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Screening of brick-kiln area soil for determination of heavy metal Pb using LIBS,” Environ. Monit. Assess. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0173-1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Singh, V. Rai, and A. K. Rai, “Variational study of the constituents of cholesterol stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-007-0516-0.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and D. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for solid and molten materials,” in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, J.P.Singh and S.N.Thakur, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 255-284.
[CrossRef]

Rai, D. K.

A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and D. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for solid and molten materials,” in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, J.P.Singh and S.N.Thakur, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 255-284.
[CrossRef]

Rai, N. K.

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS--an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835-838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V.

V. K. Singh, V. Rai, and A. K. Rai, “Variational study of the constituents of cholesterol stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-007-0516-0.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rai, V. N.

A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).

Raikov, S. N.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, J.

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rastelli, V.

Reich, G.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Rodges, A.

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

Ryall, R.

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

Sabsabi, M.

Salimi, J.

J. Salimi, K. Moosavi, and S. Vatankhah, “The concentration of heavy trace elements in pigment and cholesterol human gallstones: comparative studies by PIXE analysis,” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 1, 93-97 (2003).

Sallé, B.

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, V. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A new procedure for quantitative elemental analyses by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 960-964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sano, T.

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, and T. Sato, “Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 259-265 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayin, A.

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schechter, I.

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwetz, H.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Serel, T. A.

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, G. R.

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Shyu, W. C.

J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).

Silva, L. M. C.

C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

A. Kumar, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5399-5403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).

A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and D. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for solid and molten materials,” in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, J.P.Singh and S.N.Thakur, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 255-284.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, 2007).

Singh, V. K.

V. K. Singh, V. Rai, and A. K. Rai, “Variational study of the constituents of cholesterol stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-007-0516-0.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, V. R.

R. Agarwal and V. R. Singh, “Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gallbladder stones,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 11, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soloway, R. D.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

B. W. Trotman, J. D. Ostrow, and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment vs. cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 585-590 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spizzicchino, V.

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Squarcialupi, M. C.

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

St. Pierre, T. G.

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steffan, I.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Suzuki, N.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, and T. Sato, “Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 259-265 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabata, M.

M. Tabata and F. Nakayama, “Bacteria and gallstones: etiological significance,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 26, 218-224 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tessadri, R.

J. Joost and R. Tessadri, “Trace element investigations in kidney stone patients,” Eur. Urol. 13, 264-270 (1987).
[PubMed]

Thakur, S. N.

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, 2007).

Tognoni, E.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique to hair tissue mineral analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6133-6137 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, V. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A new procedure for quantitative elemental analyses by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 960-964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.-B.

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Trotman, B. W.

B. W. Trotman, J. D. Ostrow, and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment vs. cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 585-590 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukada, S.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallebona, C.

Vatankhah, S.

J. Salimi, K. Moosavi, and S. Vatankhah, “The concentration of heavy trace elements in pigment and cholesterol human gallstones: comparative studies by PIXE analysis,” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 1, 93-97 (2003).

Vidol, F.

Vujicic, G.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Walls, S.

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. B.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watt, D. E.

A. T. Al-Kinani, I. A. Harris, and D. E. Watt, “Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionizing radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 175-184 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Way, L. W.

R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
[CrossRef]

Webb, J.

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wel, J. S.

J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).

Womble, M. E.

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Surg. Med. 28, 330-334 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wosiewitz, U.

U. Wosiewitz, “Scanning electron microscopy in gallstone research,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Part 1, 419-430 (1983).

Wu, C. S.

J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).

Wu, E.

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. G.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Xing, D.

G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. F.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-F.

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. X.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.-X.

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Z.

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, I.

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.-L.

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

A. Kumar, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5399-5403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and D. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for solid and molten materials,” in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, J.P.Singh and S.N.Thakur, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 255-284.
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Yu.

A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).

Zechner, O.

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Am. J. Dig. Dis. (1)

B. W. Trotman, J. D. Ostrow, and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment vs. cholesterol cholelithiasis: comparison of stone and bile composition,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19, 585-590 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (1)

R. A. Berhoft, C. A. Pellegrini, R. W. Motson, and L. W. Way, “Composition and morphologic and clinical features of common duct stones,” Am. J. Surg. 148, 77-85(1984).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Surg. (1)

T. Maki, “Pathogenesis of calcium bilirubinate gallstones: role of E. coli, β-glucuronidase and coagulation by inorganic ions, polyelectrolytes and agitation,” Ann. Surg. 164, 90-100(1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology (1)

O. Kleiner, J. Ramesh, M. Huleihel, B. Cohen, K. Kantarovich, C. Levi, B. Polyak, R. S. Marks, J. Mordehai, Z. Cohen, and S. Mordechai, “A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy,” BioMed Central: BMC Gastroenterology 2, 3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biospectroscopy (3)

C. Paluszkiewicz, M. Galka, W. Kwiatek, A. Parczewski, and S. Walls, “Renal stone studies using vibrational spectroscopy and trace elemental analysis,” Biospectroscopy 3, 403-407(1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Peng, J. G. Wu, R. D. Soloway, T. D. Hu, W. D. Huang, Y. Z. Xu, L. B. Wang, X. F. Li, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, and G. X. Xu, “Periodic and chaotic precipitation phenomena in bile salt system related to gallstone formation,” Biospectroscopy 3, 195-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Li, G. R. Shen, R. D. Soloway, Z.-L. Yang, X.-B. Tong , E. Wu , D.-F. Xu, J. G. Wu, and G.-X. Xu, “Copper bilirubinate and black pigment gallstone,” Biospectroscopy 1, 149-156(1995).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1)

I. Yamamoto, M. Itoh, S. Narimatsu, N. Suzuki, R. Demura, N. Kotani, and S. Tsukada, “Determination of metal content in three types of human gallstone,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 42, 1-8 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clean Air (1)

M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Calibration free laser induced plasma spectroscopy: a new method for combustion products analysis,” Clean Air 3, 69-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem. (1)

J. S. Wel, H. M. Huang, W. C. Shyu, and C. S. Wu, “Simple enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in gallstones,” Clin. Chem. 35, 2247-2249 (1989).

Dig. Dis. Sci. (1)

M. Tabata and F. Nakayama, “Bacteria and gallstones: etiological significance,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 26, 218-224 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Monit. Assess. (1)

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Screening of brick-kiln area soil for determination of heavy metal Pb using LIBS,” Environ. Monit. Assess. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0173-1.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Ultrasound (1)

R. Agarwal and V. R. Singh, “Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gallbladder stones,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 11, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Urol. (1)

J. Joost and R. Tessadri, “Trace element investigations in kidney stone patients,” Eur. Urol. 13, 264-270 (1987).
[PubMed]

Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. (1)

J. M. Donovan, “Physical and metabolic factors in gallstone pathogenesis,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28, 75-97(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

P. F. Malet, M. A. Dabezies, G. Huang, W. B. Long, T. R. Gadacz, and R. D. Soloway, “Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of common bile duct gallstones,” Gastroenterology 94, 1217-1221 (1988).
[PubMed]

Hyperfine Interact. (1)

W. Chua-anusorn, T. G. St. Pierre, J. Webb, K. Wang, and J. F. Lu, “The form of iron in pigment gallstones,” Hyperfine Interact. 91, 911-916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. (1)

P. Chandran, P. Garg, and C. S. Pundir, “Correlation between chemical components of biliary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients,” Ind. J. Clin. Biochem. 20, 81-85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iran. J. Radiat. Res. (1)

J. Salimi, K. Moosavi, and S. Vatankhah, “The concentration of heavy trace elements in pigment and cholesterol human gallstones: comparative studies by PIXE analysis,” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 1, 93-97 (2003).

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

C. Koeberl and P. M. Bayer, “Concentrations of rare earth elements in human brain tissue and kidney stones determined by neutron activation analysis,” J. Alloys Compd. 180, 63-70(1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 740-746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. Pasquini, J. Cortez, L. M. C. Silva, and F. B. Gonzaga, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 18, 463-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cultural Heritage (1)

I. Borgia, L. Burgio, M. Corsi, R. Fantoni, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. C. Squarcialupi, and E. Tognoni, “Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis,” J. Cultural Heritage 1, S281-S286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Hazard. Mater. (1)

N. K. Rai and A. K. Rai, “LIBS--an efficient approach for the determination of Cr in industrial wastewater,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 835-838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

G. Liu, D. Xing, H. Yang, and J. Wu, “Vibrational spectroscopic study of human pigment gallstones and their insoluble materials,” J. Mol. Struct. 616, 187-191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. (1)

A. Rodges, L. Barbour, B. Pougnet, C. Lombard, and R. Ryall, “Urinary element concentrations in kidney stone formers and normal controls: the weekend effect,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis. 8, 87-91 (1994).

J. Urol. (1)

J. Hofbauer, I. Steffan, K. Hobarth, G. Vujicic, H. Schwetz, G. Reich, and O. Zechner, “Trace elements and urinary stone information: new aspects of the pathological mechanism of urinary stone formation [Erratum],” J. Urol. 148, 898-901(1992).

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Surg. Med. 28, 330-334 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (2)

X. Fang, S. R. Ahmad, M. Mayo, and S. Iqbal, “Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20, 132-137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Singh, V. Rai, and A. K. Rai, “Variational study of the constituents of cholesterol stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-007-0516-0.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Electron Microsc. (1)

T. Kodaka, T. Sano, K. Nakagawa, J. Kakino, and R. Mori, “Structural and analytical comparison of gallbladder stones collected from a single patient: studies of five cases,” Med. Electron Microsc. 37, 130-140 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. T. Al-Kinani, I. A. Harris, and D. E. Watt, “Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionizing radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 175-184 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: an analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52, 117-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pramana J. Phys. (1)

S. Pandhija and A. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile tool for monitoring of traces in materials,” Pramana J. Phys. 70, 553-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scanning Electron Microsc. (1)

U. Wosiewitz, “Scanning electron microscopy in gallstone research,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Part 1, 419-430 (1983).

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (4)

L. Fornarini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, and V. Spizzicchino, “Calibration analysis of bronze samples by nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: a theoretical and experimental approach,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1186-1201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Sallé, J. L. Lacour, P. Mauchien, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, and G. Manhes, “Comparative study of different methodologies for quantitative rock analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a simulated Martian atmosphere,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 301-313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1287-1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Bulajic, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “A procedure for correcting self-absorption in calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 339-353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (2)

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, and T. Sato, “Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 259-265 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, and T. Sato, “On metal elements in pure pigment gallstones,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 116, 233-240 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

A. K. Rai, V. N. Rai, F. Yu. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a versatile technique for elemental analysis,” Trends Appl. Spectrosc. 4, 165-214 (2002).

Urol. Int. (1)

H. Perk, T. A. Serel, A. Kobar, N. Deniz, and A. Sayin, “Analysis of the trace element contents of inner nucleus and outer crust parts of urinary calculi,” Urol. Int. 68, 286-290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science, 2007).

A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and D. K. Rai, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for solid and molten materials,” in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, J.P.Singh and S.N.Thakur, ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 255-284.
[CrossRef]

NIST Atomic Spectra Database, http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/lines_form.html.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of LIBS experimental setup for the analysis of gallstone samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of the gallstone samples used in the present study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS spectra of center part of mixed stone (dark brown) in the 270 385 nm spectral region. Inset, spectrum recorded in the 235 245 nm spectral region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS spectra of outer surface of black pigment stone and bottle green stone in the 200 470 nm spectral region. Inset, spectrum recorded by using a low-resolution grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bar chart for intensity ratio (concentration ratio) of Mg ( 280.20 nm ) / Ca ( 396.86 nm ) and C ( 247.83 nm ) / Ca ( 396.86 nm ) in the LIBS spectra of mixed stones of different colors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Point-to-point variation of the intensity ratio of Cu ( 324.7 nm ) / Ca ( 317.9 nm ) and Mg ( 279.5 nm ) / Ca ( 317.9 nm ) from one end to the other end of the diameter. The distance between the two locations is 0.5 mm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical single-shot LIBS spectra of center part and outer part of black pigment stone in the 250 350 nm spectral region.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Boltzmann plot derived from the analysis of the LIBS spectra of a gallbladder stone.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the Sample Gallbladder Stones

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cholesterol and Bilirubin Content in Gallstone Samples Obtained by the Spectrophotometric Method

Tables Icon

Table 3 Elements Identified in Gallstone Samples and Their Observed Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table 4 Spectral Intensity Ratios of Minor/Major Gallstone Constituents in LIBS Spectra

Tables Icon

Table 5 Concentrations of Elements in Gallstone Samples (GS1–GS9) Obtained by ICP-AES

Tables Icon

Table 6 Concentrations of Elements in Gallstone Samples (GS1–GS9) Obtained by CF-LIBS

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ne ( Δ λ FWHM 2 w ) × 10 16 ( cm 3 ) ,
Ne ( cm 3 ) 1.6 × 10 12 [ Δ E ( eV ) ] 3 [ T ( K ) ] 1 / 2 ,
I α k i = F C α g k A k i e ( E k / K B T ) U α ( T ) ,
ln ( I α k i g k A k i ) = E k K B T + ln ( C α F U α ( T α ) ) ,
y = a x + b α
y = ln ( I α k i g k A k i ) , x = E k , a = 1 K B T , b α = ln ( C α F U α ( T α ) ) .
α C α = 1.

Metrics