Abstract

A study of aqueous solutions of chromium using single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Three atomic emission lines show enhancement in emission under dual pulse LIBS excitation. The temporal evolution of line emission indicates that a shock wave front produced by the first laser pulse plays an important role in determining the decay rate of intensity by excitation transfer in single pulse LIBS and by plasma confinement in double pulse LIBS. The ratio of emission in dual pulse LIBS to single pulse LIBS with time shows a linear increase followed by the onset of saturation. A theoretical calculation of the enhancement is found to be in qualitative agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that material ablation in dual pulse LIBS should be 3.5times that of single pulse LIBS. There is indication that the increase in ablation and subsequent enhancement in emission may be due to the rarefied gas density inside the region enclosed by the shock wave produced by the first laser pulse. The limit of detection of Cr in aqueous solution has been improved by an order of magnitude with double pulse LIBS.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capetelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: Elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Scaffidi, S. M. Angel, and D. A. Cremers, “Emission enhancement mechanisms in dual-pulse LIBS,” Anal. Chem. 78, 24-32(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967(2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Ho and N. H. Cheung, “Sub-part-per-billion analysis of aqueous lead collides by ArF laser induced atomic fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 77, 193-199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (8)

A. Kuwako, Y. Uchida, and K. Maeda, “Supersensitive detection of sodium in water with the use of dual pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6052-6056(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Study of laser induced breakdown emission from liquid under double pulse excitation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085-2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Rai, A. K. Rai, F. Y. Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Optical emission from laser induced breakdown plasma of solid and liquid samples in the presence of magnetic field,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2085-2093 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Pearman, J. Scaffidi, and S. M. Angel, “Dual pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in bulk aqueous solution with orthogonal beam geometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6085-6093(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peter, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, “Liquid steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6199-6204 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stepputat and R. Noll, “Online detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6210-6220 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Pu and N. H. Cheung, “ArF laser induced plasma spectroscopy of lead ions in aqueous solutions: plume reheating with a second Nd:YAG laser pulse,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 588-590(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Pu, W. Y. Ma, and N. H. Cheung, “Sensitive elemental analysis of aqueous colloids by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3416-3418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. St-Onge, V. Deale, and M. Assai, “Enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using the combination of fourth-harmonics and fundamental Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 121-135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (4)

1997 (2)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183-235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A. C. Humphrey, “Computational study of heat transfer and gas dynamics in the pulsed laser evaporation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4696-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Angel, J. M.

Angel, S. M.

Assai, M.

L. St-Onge, V. Deale, and M. Assai, “Enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using the combination of fourth-harmonics and fundamental Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 121-135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Babushok, V. I.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

Beddows, D. C. S.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, P. A.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brust, J.

Capetelli, M.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capetelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: Elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castle, B. C.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. D.

Cheung, N. H.

S. K. Ho and N. H. Cheung, “Sub-part-per-billion analysis of aqueous lead collides by ArF laser induced atomic fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 77, 193-199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Pu and N. H. Cheung, “ArF laser induced plasma spectroscopy of lead ions in aqueous solutions: plume reheating with a second Nd:YAG laser pulse,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 588-590(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Pu, W. Y. Ma, and N. H. Cheung, “Sensitive elemental analysis of aqueous colloids by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3416-3418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

J. Scaffidi, S. M. Angel, and D. A. Cremers, “Emission enhancement mechanisms in dual-pulse LIBS,” Anal. Chem. 78, 24-32(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cristoforetti, G.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Giacomo, A.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capetelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: Elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Pascale, O.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capetelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: Elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deale, V.

L. St-Onge, V. Deale, and M. Assai, “Enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using the combination of fourth-harmonics and fundamental Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 121-135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dell'Aglio, M.

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capetelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: Elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DeLucia, F. C.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

Dubessy, J.

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eland, K. L.

Fantoni, R.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fichet, P.

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, C.

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, C.

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giuffrida, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A. C. Humphrey, “Computational study of heat transfer and gas dynamics in the pulsed laser evaporation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4696-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. R.

J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A. C. Humphrey, “Computational study of heat transfer and gas dynamics in the pulsed laser evaporation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4696-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. K.

S. K. Ho and N. H. Cheung, “Sub-part-per-billion analysis of aqueous lead collides by ArF laser induced atomic fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 77, 193-199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, J. A. C.

J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A. C. Humphrey, “Computational study of heat transfer and gas dynamics in the pulsed laser evaporation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4696-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karney, K. P.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, and K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59-67 (1999).

Kukhlevsky, S. V.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuwako, A.

Lacour, J. L.

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lazic, V.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. I.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183-235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leis, F.

L'Hermite, D.

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. Y.

X. Y. Pu, W. Y. Ma, and N. H. Cheung, “Sensitive elemental analysis of aqueous colloids by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3416-3418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

Mao, X.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967(2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M.

Menut, D.

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

Munson, C. A.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K.

Noll, R.

Palleschi, V.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pardini, L.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pearman, W.

Pershin, S.

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peter, L.

Pu, X. Y.

X. Y. Pu and N. H. Cheung, “ArF laser induced plasma spectroscopy of lead ions in aqueous solutions: plume reheating with a second Nd:YAG laser pulse,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 588-590(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Pu, W. Y. Ma, and N. H. Cheung, “Sensitive elemental analysis of aqueous colloids by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3416-3418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rai, A. K.

Rai, V. N.

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967(2005).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samek, O.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, R.

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scaffidi, J.

Sdorra, W.

Singh, J. P.

Smith, B. W.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sneddon, J.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183-235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183-235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stepputat, M.

St-Onge, L.

L. St-Onge, V. Deale, and M. Assai, “Enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using the combination of fourth-harmonics and fundamental Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 121-135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stratis, D. N.

Sturm, V.

Telle, H. H.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tognoni, E.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Togoni, E.

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, Y.

Uebbing, J.

Vallebona, C.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S. B.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967(2005).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

Zeng, X.

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967(2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, and K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59-67 (1999).

Anal. Chem. (2)

J. Scaffidi, S. M. Angel, and D. A. Cremers, “Emission enhancement mechanisms in dual-pulse LIBS,” Anal. Chem. 78, 24-32(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Ho and N. H. Cheung, “Sub-part-per-billion analysis of aqueous lead collides by ArF laser induced atomic fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 77, 193-199 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Y. Pu, W. Y. Ma, and N. H. Cheung, “Sensitive elemental analysis of aqueous colloids by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3416-3418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (6)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183-235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A. C. Humphrey, “Computational study of heat transfer and gas dynamics in the pulsed laser evaporation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 4696-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses,” J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Samek, D. C. S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S. V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H. H. Telle, and J. Young, “Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2248-2262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (9)

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, and C. Vallebona, “Three dimensional analysis of laser induced plasmas in single and double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 723-735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Benedetti, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Togoni, “Effect of laser pulse energies in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double pulse configuration,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1392-1401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, and S. Pershin, “A comparison of single and double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1167-1179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Quantification of the intensity enhancement for the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the orthogonal beam geometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 265-276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gauthier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J. L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite, and J. Dubessy, “Study of the double pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 59, 975-986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. St-Onge, V. Deale, and M. Assai, “Enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy using the combination of fourth-harmonics and fundamental Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 121-135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Mao, X. Zeng, S. B. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 960-967(2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, Jr., J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 61, 999-1014(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, O. De Pascale, and M. Capetelli, “From single pulse to double pulse ns laser induced breakdown spectroscopy under water: Elemental analysis of aqueous solutions and submerged solid samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 721-738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, H. Zhang, and K. P. Karney, “A preliminary study of the determination of uranium, plutonium and neptunium by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Spectrosc. 2, 59-67 (1999).

L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser Induced Plasma and Its Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1989).

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, eds., Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Cambridge Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, eds., Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, 2007).

A. A. Lamola and N. J. Turro, eds., Energy Transfer and Organic Photochemistry (Interscience, 1969).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal intensity profile of line emission from Cr1 ( 425.4 nm ), Cr2 ( 427.5 nm ), and Cr3 ( 428.9 nm ) obtained from single pulse LIBS ( 5 ppm , gate width 5 μs , laser pulse energy L 1 120 mJ ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal intensity profile of line emission from Cr1 ( 425.4 nm ), Cr2 ( 427.5 nm ) and Cr3 ( 428.9 nm ) obtained from double pulse LIBS ( 5 ppm , D L 2.5 μs , gate width 5 μs , laser pulse energies L 1 120 mJ and L 2 150 mJ ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal profile of ratio of line emission intensity from Cr1, Cr2 and Cr3 obtained in double and single pulse LIBS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretically obtained enhancement in emission (ratio of intensity in double and single pulse LIBS) with detector gate delay for different ratios of mass ablation rate in double and single pulse LIBS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in emission intensity under double pulse LIBS with respect to delay between laser pulse for Cr1, Cr2, and Cr3 ( 5 ppm ), laser pulse energies L 1 120 mJ , L 2 120 mJ , and gate delay/gate width 20 / 10 μs .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calibration curve of chromium (Cr1) obtained in single and double pulse LIBS [laser pulse energies L 1 140 mJ , L 2 140 mJ , gate delay (from first laser)/gate width 20 / 10 μs , interpulse delay D L 2 μs ].

Equations (1)

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E = 1 + ( m ˙ 2 m ˙ 1 ) 2 [ 1 exp { 32 15 c C s 1 Δ t . ν ei } ] ( Δ t t 1 + C s 2 C s 1 t 2 t 1 ) ,

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