Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

A. Michalakou, P. Stavropoulos, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in reactive flows of hydrocarbon-air mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

L. Zimmer and S. Tachibana, “Laser induced plasma spectroscopy for local equivalence ratio measurements in an oscillating combustion environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 737-745 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, J. Ma, L. Ji, and Z. Huang, “Experimental study on the combustion characteristics and emissions of biodiesel fueled compression ignition engines with premixed dimethoxymethane,” Energy Fuels 21, 3144-3150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. Y. Lin and H. A. Lin, “Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel produced by the peroxidation process,” Fuel 85, 298-305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferioli and S. G. Buckley, “Measurements of hydrocarbons using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 144, 435-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for equivalence ratio measurement in methane-air premixed flames,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1092-1097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane-air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404, 309-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Lee and N. Hegde, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ diagnostics of combustion parameters including temperature,” Combust. Flame 142, 314-316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Ferioli, P. V. Puzinauskas, and S. G. Buckley, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line engine equivalence ratio measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1183-1189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. X. Phuoc and F. P. White, “Laser induced spark for measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio of a combustible mixture,” Fuel 81, 1761-1765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, “Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hahn, W. L. Flower, and K. R. Henken, “Discrete particle detection and metal emission monitoring using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1836-1844(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1983 (2)

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of chlorine and fluorine in air by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1252-1256 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246-1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Baesso, M. L.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, S. G.

F. Ferioli and S. G. Buckley, “Measurements of hydrocarbons using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 144, 435-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferioli, P. V. Puzinauskas, and S. G. Buckley, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line engine equivalence ratio measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1183-1189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, K. P.

Castle, B. C.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castro, M. P. P.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Constantino, R.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. L.

Couris, S.

A. Michalakou, P. Stavropoulos, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in reactive flows of hydrocarbon-air mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for equivalence ratio measurement in methane-air premixed flames,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1092-1097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane-air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404, 309-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D.

D. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2007).

Cremers, D. A.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246-1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of chlorine and fluorine in air by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1252-1256 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, R. S.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Rocha, G. O.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Andrade, J. B.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Oliveira, A. M.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Einecke, S.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, “Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferioli, F.

F. Ferioli and S. G. Buckley, “Measurements of hydrocarbons using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 144, 435-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferioli, P. V. Puzinauskas, and S. G. Buckley, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line engine equivalence ratio measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1183-1189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flower, W. L.

Franco, R. W. A.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaydon, A. G.

A. G. Gaydon and H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature, 3rd ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1970).

Guarieiro, L. L. N.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. W.

Hanson, R. K.

L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, N.

T. W. Lee and N. Hegde, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ diagnostics of combustion parameters including temperature,” Combust. Flame 142, 314-316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henken, K. R.

Hoffman, N. M.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246-1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hoinghaus, K. K.

K. K. Hoinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Huang, Z.

X. Lu, J. Ma, L. Ji, and Z. Huang, “Experimental study on the combustion characteristics and emissions of biodiesel fueled compression ignition engines with premixed dimethoxymethane,” Energy Fuels 21, 3144-3150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Hoinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Ji, L.

X. Lu, J. Ma, L. Ji, and Z. Huang, “Experimental study on the combustion characteristics and emissions of biodiesel fueled compression ignition engines with premixed dimethoxymethane,” Energy Fuels 21, 3144-3150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. W.

T. W. Lee and N. Hegde, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ diagnostics of combustion parameters including temperature,” Combust. Flame 142, 314-316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

C. Y. Lin and H. A. Lin, “Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel produced by the peroxidation process,” Fuel 85, 298-305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. A.

C. Y. Lin and H. A. Lin, “Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel produced by the peroxidation process,” Fuel 85, 298-305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loree, T. R.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246-1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, J. Ma, L. Ji, and Z. Huang, “Experimental study on the combustion characteristics and emissions of biodiesel fueled compression ignition engines with premixed dimethoxymethane,” Energy Fuels 21, 3144-3150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

X. Lu, J. Ma, L. Ji, and Z. Huang, “Experimental study on the combustion characteristics and emissions of biodiesel fueled compression ignition engines with premixed dimethoxymethane,” Energy Fuels 21, 3144-3150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michalakou, A.

A. Michalakou, P. Stavropoulos, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in reactive flows of hydrocarbon-air mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for equivalence ratio measurement in methane-air premixed flames,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1092-1097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane-air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404, 309-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, P. C. M. L.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A.

A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Phuoc, T. X.

T. X. Phuoc and F. P. White, “Laser induced spark for measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio of a combustible mixture,” Fuel 81, 1761-1765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, A. C.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puzinauskas, P. V.

Quintella, C. M.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, L. J.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246-1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of chlorine and fluorine in air by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1252-1256 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2007).

Rangel, M. do C.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rezende, M. J. C.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, N. M.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schechter, I.

A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, “Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sick, V.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, “Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

Skevis, G.

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for equivalence ratio measurement in methane-air premixed flames,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1092-1097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane-air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404, 309-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stavropoulos, P.

A. Michalakou, P. Stavropoulos, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in reactive flows of hydrocarbon-air mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for equivalence ratio measurement in methane-air premixed flames,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1092-1097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane-air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404, 309-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sthel, M.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, S.

L. Zimmer and S. Tachibana, “Laser induced plasma spectroscopy for local equivalence ratio measurements in an oscillating combustion environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 737-745 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teixeira, O. S. G.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, S. N.

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, 2007).

Torres, E. A.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, H.

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Veloso, M. C. C.

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, F. P.

T. X. Phuoc and F. P. White, “Laser induced spark for measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio of a combustible mixture,” Fuel 81, 1761-1765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfhard, H. G.

A. G. Gaydon and H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature, 3rd ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1970).

Yueh, F. Y.

Zhang, H.

Zimmer, L.

L. Zimmer and S. Tachibana, “Laser induced plasma spectroscopy for local equivalence ratio measurements in an oscillating combustion environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 737-745 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of chlorine and fluorine in air by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1252-1256 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Loree, D. A. Cremers, and N. M. Hoffman, “Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246-1252 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, “Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Michalakou, P. Stavropoulos, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in reactive flows of hydrocarbon-air mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Quantitative local equivalence ratio determination in laminar premixed methane-air flames by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404, 309-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. P. Castro, A. A. Andrade, R. W. A. Franco, P. C. M. L. Miranda, M. Sthel, H. Vargas, R. Constantino, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 18-22(2005).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

T. W. Lee and N. Hegde, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ diagnostics of combustion parameters including temperature,” Combust. Flame 142, 314-316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferioli and S. G. Buckley, “Measurements of hydrocarbons using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 144, 435-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257-290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Energy Fuels (2)

N. M. Ribeiro, A. C. Pinto, C. M. Quintella, G. O. da Rocha, O. S. G. Teixeira, L. L. N. Guarieiro, M. do C. Rangel, M. C. C. Veloso, M. J. C. Rezende, R. S. Cruz, A. M. de Oliveira, E. A. Torres, and J. B. de Andrade, “The role of additives for diesel and diesel blended (ethanol or biodiesel) fuels: a review,” Energy Fuels 21, 2433-2445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, J. Ma, L. Ji, and Z. Huang, “Experimental study on the combustion characteristics and emissions of biodiesel fueled compression ignition engines with premixed dimethoxymethane,” Energy Fuels 21, 3144-3150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuel (2)

C. Y. Lin and H. A. Lin, “Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel produced by the peroxidation process,” Fuel 85, 298-305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc and F. P. White, “Laser induced spark for measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio of a combustible mixture,” Fuel 81, 1761-1765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

L. Zimmer and S. Tachibana, “Laser induced plasma spectroscopy for local equivalence ratio measurements in an oscillating combustion environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 737-745 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Monitoring and control of a pulse detonation engine using a diode-laser fuel concentration and temperature sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

P. Stavropoulos, A. Michalakou, G. Skevis, and S. Couris, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an analytical tool for equivalence ratio measurement in methane-air premixed flames,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 1092-1097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, 2007).

D. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2007).

A. G. Gaydon and H. G. Wolfhard, Flames: Their Structure, Radiation and Temperature, 3rd ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1970).

K. K. Hoinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup (a) with and (b) without a gated detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation of the equivalence ratio of CH 4 / air flames with the intensity ratio I H / I o .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS spectrum of H spectral line in a biodiesel flame that was detected by an IDAD gated detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIBS spectrum of biodiesel flame with ungated detection: (a) raw data and (b) background subtracted spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity ratio of a biodiesel flame at different heights above a burner.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Area Intensity Ratio ( H / O ) Change with Ethanol Concentration in Biodiesel Flame

Equations (2)

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CH 4 + 2 ( O 2 + 0.79 0.21 N 2 ) CO 2 + 2 H 2 O + 1.58 0.21 N 2 .
Φ = m fuel / m air ( m fuel / m air ) stochiometric .

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