Abstract

Hydrogen emission spectroscopy results are reported following laser-induced optical breakdown with infrared Nd:YAG laser radiation focused into a pulsed methane flow. Measurements of Stark-broadened atomic hydrogen-alpha, -beta, and -gamma lines show electron number densities of 0.3 to 4×1017cm3 for time delays of 2.1 to 0.4μs after laser-induced optical breakdown. In methane flow, recombination molecular spectra of the Δν=+2 progression of the C2 Swan system are discernable in the Hβ and Hγ plasma emissions within the first few microseconds. The recorded atomic spectra indicate the occurrence of hydrogen self-absorption for pulsed CH4 flow pressures of 2.7×105Pa (25psig) and 6.5×105Pa (80psig).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A.W.Miziolek, V.Palleschi, and I.Schechter, eds., Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. E. Cremers, Leon J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. W. Miziolek, F. C. DeLucia, C. A. Munson, and J. L. Gottfried, “Recent progress in LIBS-based technologies for security applications,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC1.
    [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Spicer and C. McEnnis, “Molecular and atomic emission in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS of explosives on surfaces,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC2.
    [PubMed]
  5. C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis, and D. H. Plemmons, “Electron number density and temperature measurement in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 249-255 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spatially and temporally resolved electron number density measurement in a decaying laser-induced hydrogen plasma using hydrogen-alpha line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3325-3330(1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Sattmann, I. Mönch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrrauri, and R. Miguel, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 456-461 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and E. Oks, “Balmer series Hβ measurements in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5992-6000 (2003), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y.-L. Chen and J. W. L. Lewis, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 411 B. H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, Tenn. 37355, USA (personal communication, 2008).
  12. M. A. Gigosos, M. À. Gonzàlez, and V. Cardeñoso, “Computer simulated Balmer-alpha, -beta and -gamma Stark line profiles for nonequilibrium plasma diagnostics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 58, 1489-1504 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.
  15. A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and Th. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61, 532-539(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

1998 (1)

1995 (2)

C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis, and D. H. Plemmons, “Electron number density and temperature measurement in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 249-255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spatially and temporally resolved electron number density measurement in a decaying laser-induced hydrogen plasma using hydrogen-alpha line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3325-3330(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
[CrossRef]

Cardeñoso, V.

M. A. Gigosos, M. À. Gonzàlez, and V. Cardeñoso, “Computer simulated Balmer-alpha, -beta and -gamma Stark line profiles for nonequilibrium plasma diagnostics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 58, 1489-1504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Chen and J. W. L. Lewis, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 411 B. H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, Tenn. 37355, USA (personal communication, 2008).

Couris, S.

Cremers, D. E.

D. E. Cremers, Leon J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Cristoforetti, G.

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeLucia, F. C.

A. W. Miziolek, F. C. DeLucia, C. A. Munson, and J. L. Gottfried, “Recent progress in LIBS-based technologies for security applications,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC1.
[PubMed]

El Sherbini, A. M.

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and Th. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61, 532-539(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El Sherbini, Th. M.

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and Th. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61, 532-539(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

Gigosos, M. A.

M. A. Gigosos, M. À. Gonzàlez, and V. Cardeñoso, “Computer simulated Balmer-alpha, -beta and -gamma Stark line profiles for nonequilibrium plasma diagnostics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 58, 1489-1504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonzàlez, M. À.

M. A. Gigosos, M. À. Gonzàlez, and V. Cardeñoso, “Computer simulated Balmer-alpha, -beta and -gamma Stark line profiles for nonequilibrium plasma diagnostics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 58, 1489-1504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

A. W. Miziolek, F. C. DeLucia, C. A. Munson, and J. L. Gottfried, “Recent progress in LIBS-based technologies for security applications,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC1.
[PubMed]

Hatziapostolou, A.

Hegazy, H.

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and Th. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61, 532-539(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hornkohl, J. O.

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.

Krause, H.

Larrrauri, E.

Legnaioli, S.

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. W. L.

C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis, and D. H. Plemmons, “Electron number density and temperature measurement in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 249-255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spatially and temporally resolved electron number density measurement in a decaying laser-induced hydrogen plasma using hydrogen-alpha line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3325-3330(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Chen and J. W. L. Lewis, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 411 B. H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, Tenn. 37355, USA (personal communication, 2008).

Mavromanolakis, A.

McEnnis, C.

J. B. Spicer and C. McEnnis, “Molecular and atomic emission in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS of explosives on surfaces,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC2.
[PubMed]

Miguel, R.

Miziolek, A. W.

A. W. Miziolek, F. C. DeLucia, C. A. Munson, and J. L. Gottfried, “Recent progress in LIBS-based technologies for security applications,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC1.
[PubMed]

Mönch, I.

Munson, C. A.

A. W. Miziolek, F. C. DeLucia, C. A. Munson, and J. L. Gottfried, “Recent progress in LIBS-based technologies for security applications,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC1.
[PubMed]

Noll, R.

Oks, E.

Palleschi, V.

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pardini, L.

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parigger, C.

C. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spatially and temporally resolved electron number density measurement in a decaying laser-induced hydrogen plasma using hydrogen-alpha line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3325-3330(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis, and D. H. Plemmons, “Electron number density and temperature measurement in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 249-255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parigger, C. G.

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and E. Oks, “Balmer series Hβ measurements in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5992-6000 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.

Plemmons, D. H.

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and E. Oks, “Balmer series Hβ measurements in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5992-6000 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spatially and temporally resolved electron number density measurement in a decaying laser-induced hydrogen plasma using hydrogen-alpha line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3325-3330(1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis, and D. H. Plemmons, “Electron number density and temperature measurement in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 249-255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, Leon J.

D. E. Cremers, Leon J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, R.

Spicer, J. B.

J. B. Spicer and C. McEnnis, “Molecular and atomic emission in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS of explosives on surfaces,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC2.
[PubMed]

Sturm, V.

Tognoni, E.

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis, and D. H. Plemmons, “Electron number density and temperature measurement in a laser-induced hydrogen plasma,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 249-255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parigger, D. H. Plemmons, J. O. Hornkohl, and J. W. L. Lewis, “Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a decaying laser-induced plasma using the C2 Swan system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 707-711(1994).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B (3)

M. A. Gigosos, M. À. Gonzàlez, and V. Cardeñoso, “Computer simulated Balmer-alpha, -beta and -gamma Stark line profiles for nonequilibrium plasma diagnostics,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 58, 1489-1504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. El Sherbini, Th. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 60, 1573-1579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and Th. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61, 532-539(2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A.W.Miziolek, V.Palleschi, and I.Schechter, eds., Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Cremers, Leon J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, 2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Miziolek, F. C. DeLucia, C. A. Munson, and J. L. Gottfried, “Recent progress in LIBS-based technologies for security applications,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC1.
[PubMed]

J. B. Spicer and C. McEnnis, “Molecular and atomic emission in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS of explosives on surfaces,” in Biomedical Optics/Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging/Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LThC2.
[PubMed]

J. O. Hornkohl and C. G. Parigger, Boltzmann Equilibrium Spectrum Program (BESP) (University of Tennessee Space Institute, 2002), http://view.utsi.edu/besp.

Y.-L. Chen and J. W. L. Lewis, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 411 B. H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, Tenn. 37355, USA (personal communication, 2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hydrogen-gamma emissions at 2.7 × 10 5 Pa . Time delay (a)  t delay = 0.4 μs , (b)  t delay = 0.8 μs , (c)  t delay = 1.5 μs , (d)  t delay = 2.1 μs .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hydrogen-beta emission at 2.7 × 10 5 Pa . Time delay (a)  t delay = 0.4 μs , (b)  t delay = 0.8 μs , (c)  t delay = 1.5 μs , (d)  t delay = 2.1 μs .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hydrogen-alpha emission at 2.7 × 10 5 Pa . Time delay (a)  t delay = 0.4 μs , (b)  t delay = 0.8 μs , (c)  t delay = 1.5 μs , (d)  t delay = 2.1 μs .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Swan system C 2 d 3 Π g a 3 Π u at 2.7 × 10 5 Pa . Measured (dots) and fitted (line) spectra for t delay = 2.1 μs , temperature T = 6450 K and spectral resolution Δ λ = 0.11 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hydrogen-gamma emission at 6.5 × 10 5 Pa . Time delay (a)  t delay = 0.4 μs , (b)  t delay = 0.8 μs , (c)  t delay = 1.5 μs , (d)  t delay = 2.1 μs .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hydrogen-beta emission for at 6.5 × 10 5 Pa . Time delay (a)  t delay = 0.4 μs , (b)  t delay = 0.8 μs , (c)  t delay = 1.5 μs , (d)  t delay = 2.1 μs .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hydrogen-alpha emission at 6.5 × 10 5 Pa . Time delay (a)  t delay = 0.4 μs , (b)  t delay = 0.8 μs , (c)  t delay = 1.5 μs , (d)  t delay = 2.1 μs .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Hydrogen-Gamma Widths a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Hydrogen-Beta Widths a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Hydrogen-Alpha Widths a

Metrics